fur seal

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Related to northern fur seals: Callorhinus ursinus, Callorhinus

fur seal,

fin-footed marine mammal of the eared seal family (Otaridae), highly valued for its fur. Like the closely related sea lionsea lion,
fin-footed marine mammal of the eared seal family (Otariidae). Like the other member of this family, the fur seal, the sea lion is distinguished from the true seal by its external ears, long, flexible neck, supple forelimbs, and hind flippers that can be turned forward
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, the nine species of fur seals are distinguished from the true sealseal,
carnivorous aquatic mammal with front and hind feet modified as flippers, or fin-feet. The name seal is sometimes applied broadly to any of the fin-footed mammals, or pinnipeds, including the walrus, the eared seals (sea lion and fur seal), and the true seals, also called
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 by external ears and the ability to turn their hind flippers forward for walking on land. The northern, or Alaskan, fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, has an outer coat of long coarse hair known as guard hair and an inner coat of thick soft fur; it is the inner coat that is valued in the fur trade. Males are dark brown and females and young are grayish. The male is about 6 ft (1.8 m) long and weighs up to 600 lb (270 kg), while the smaller female is up to 4 ft (1.2 m) long and seldom weighs more than 110 lbs (50 kg). Herds of northern fur seals, mostly females and juveniles, winter in open ocean along the Pacific coast of North America, migrating in spring to breeding beaches that range from the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea to San Miguel Island off California. Adult males, who usually winter separately, arrive at the islands weeks ahead of the females. During the breeding season the most aggressive males establish individual territories and have harems averaging 40 to 50 females, which they defend against other males. Mating occurs after the birth of the young conceived the previous summer; each female bears a single pup after a gestation period of almost a year. The pups nurse for about a month but remain with the mother for another 2 or 3 months. Mothers often leave pups for days to feed on squid and fish. By the early 20th cent. the northern fur seal population was reduced to about 200,000 as the result of wanton slaughter. An international treaty signed in 1911 limited hunting to a fixed number of nonbreeding males per year. By 1976 the world population had increased to almost 2 million; since then it has declined, for reasons still unclear. The United States prohibited the hunting of fur seals in 1985. Southern fur seals, such as Arctocephalus gazella and other species, are similar in size and appearance to the northern fur seal. Although their fur is not considered desirable, they have been hunted almost to extinction. Both southern and northern fur seals migrate, while tropical species remain near their breeding grounds. Fur seals are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Carnivora, suborder Pinnipedia, family Otariidae. See also Bering Sea Fur-Seal Controversy, under Bering SeaBering Sea,
c.878,000 sq mi (2,274,020 sq km), northward extension of the Pacific Ocean between Siberia and Alaska. It is screened from the Pacific proper by the Aleutian Islands. The Bering Strait connects it with the Arctic Ocean.
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See W. N. Bonner, Seals and Man (1982); J. E. King, Seals of the World (1983).

References in periodicals archive ?
Unhealthy northern fur seal pups have been found stranded on beaches in record numbers, newly weaned and weighing little more than the typical birth weight for the species, experts at the Marine Mammal Center near Sausalito said.
During the 346 survey days in the eastern Aleutians in June-September 2002-2004, the largest number of pinniped sightings was of northern fur seals (375 sightings), which were frequently encountered as single individuals resting at the surface, or were observed on the rookery at Bogoslof Island.
During the summer season in the eastern Aleutians (Unimak Pass-Umnak Island), northern fur seals were the most frequently harassed prey; four of the five observed harassments resulted in kills.
These records provide details of sea otter, Enhydra lutris, and northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, harvests, which were of great commercial importance (Pallas, 1789; Berkh, 1823; Veniaminov, 1840; Efimov, 1948, 1950; Fedorova, 1985).
These later surveys focused on the restoration of northern fur seal and sea otter stocks and management of cetacean and phocid harvests.
Spews from northern fur seals are present on summer breeding islands, but diet studies that are based on spews are limited (Kiyota et al.
Pup weight and survival of northern fur seals Callorhinus ursinus.
The two most pelagic species observed in this region, northern fur seals and elephant seals, were the most commonly seen pinnipeds.
Baker and Donohue (2000) used data loggers (which they termed "time wet recorders") to measure time spent in the water and diving behavior of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups on St.
animals Sex Facility location * M, F, Pacific coast, Species, age group, n=780J n = 643 n = 1,198 and residential ([double ([section]) ([paragraph]) status dagger]) Animal (species) California sea 365 301 662 lion (Zalophus californianus) Stellar sea lion 15 19 25 (Eumetopias jubatus) Northern fur seal 26 15 38 (Callorhinus ursinus) Northern elephant 101 72 173 seal (Mirounga angustirostris) Ribbon seal 1 0 1 (Histriophoca fasciata) Hooded seal 3 1 0 (Cystophora cristata) Gray seal 45 18 0 (Halichoerus grypus) Harp seal (Phoca 17 18 0 groenlandica) Harbor seal 198 191 290 (P.
The northern fur seal resource of the Pribilof Islands provides one of the earliest examples of successful management of an aquatic resource, especially in international management.

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