All CSLFC Ultrasonic Flow Meters have 4-20 mA output as standard with a second output available in the form of an optically isolated NPN transistor
, configured at the factory.
The parasitic NPN transistor
is formed by the N substrate (parasitic Collector), the P drift region (the Base), and the N well on the topside (the Emitter).
The Basic unit has one 4-20mA and one NPN transistor
output, while the most advanced unit has two NPN/PNP transistor outputs and two 4-20mA outputs.
The unit is an NPN transistor
manufactured using a new low-voltage planar technology.
The flow transmitters with 4-20 mA output are available in two versions: Basic (one NPN transistor
output) and Advanced (two NPN/PNP transistor outputs).
Development of a 25 watt NPN transistor
, housed in a plastic encapsulant eliminating the conventional metal semiconductor case, has resulted in a cost of less than 40 cents for each transistor in large quantities.
The UHZ ultrasonic series comes with an 18-30 V dc input supply range and PNP or NPN transistor
In the battery charger is used one P-channel MOSFET switching transistor driven by ATtiny15 via one bipolar NPN transistor
. The schematic of intelligent battery charger is shown in figure 2.
The Hall-effect switches are available with either current sinking (NPN transistor
) or current sourcing (PNP transistor) output stages.
As an example, most silicon bipolar integrated circuit wafer processes are designed to make vertical NPN transistors
. Ideally, the circuit designer is instructed to make use of the fundamental NPN transistor
Consider, for example, a 400V NPN transistor
from Zetex Semiconductors that is capable of switching 500 mA continuously, 1A peak, within a SOT23 flat package less than 1 mm high and with a footprint of 7 [mm.sup.2].