imaging

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imaging

The representation, by means of TV pictures, photographs, graphs, etc., of an object or area by the sensing and recording of patterns of light or other radiation emitted by, reflected from, or transmitted through the object or area. Two broad classifications are chemical imaging, i.e. photography, and electronic imaging. Both are important in astronomy, a variety of photographic emulsions and electronic devices being available for different frequency bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The majority of information gathered by ground-based and orbiting telescopes is in digital form so that it can be manipulated by computer. This information can be derived directly from electronic devices, such as CCDs, photon-counting detectors, or photovoltaic detectors, associated with the telescope. These devices respond to radiation by converting it to an electrical signal. They are more sensitive than photographic emulsions, responding to lower levels of intensity and/or producing an image in a shorter time. Photographic plates do, however, provide an image of a much greater area of the sky than existing electronic devices. Machines, such as COSMOS, have therefore been built to measure data on photographic plates rapidly and automatically and produce results in digital form.

An electronic detector can be moved across the focused image of an astronomical object or area of the sky, or the image can be moved across the detector. The electrical signal from the detector is sampled in such a way that an array of values corresponding to an array of portions of the complete image is obtained. Alternatively the image falls on a large number of closely packed detectors, all producing a signal. In each case the result is a set of numbers corresponding to some property of the individual image portions, e.g. the intensity at a particular wavelength. The individual portions into which the image is divided are called pixels (short for picture elements). The greater the number of pixels per image, the higher the resolution, i.e. the greater the detail seen.

This numerical version of the image will normally reside in a computer system, and can be manipulated in different ways in order to highlight different aspects of the original image; the manipulative techniques are known as image processing. The final form of the display can be a TV monitor, a visual display unit attached to a computer, a plotting device, or photographic film, and information derived from the image can also appear in graphs and tables, and be subjected to statistical and numerical analysis.

imaging

[′im·i·jiŋ]
(physics)
The formation of images of objects.

imaging

(graphics)
The production of graphic images, either from a video camera or from digitally generated data (see visualisation), or the recording of such images on microfilm, videotape or laser disk.

See also scanner.

imaging

(1) Creating a film or electronic image of any picture or paper form. Imaging is accomplished by scanning or photographing an object and turning it into a matrix of dots (bitmap), the true meaning of which is unknown to the computer, only to the human viewer. Scanned documents containing text can be encoded into computer data with page recognition software (see OCR). See computational imaging, micrographics, image processing and document imaging.

(2) The illusion of a live performance in audio playback. Microphone placement during recording, post-recording mixing in the studio and the performance of the speakers when listening all contribute to the quality of the imaging. Geared to the type of venue such as a concert hall or nightclub, surround sound processing in the audio equipment creates or enhances effects that attempt to make imaging more realistic.

Speaker Imaging
From the playback side, imaging quality is derived mostly from the speakers. The stiffness and mass of the speaker cone, along with the materials used to suspend the cone in its frame, are the primary criteria that affect the speaker's capability of reproducing sound accurately, and thus the imaging. See home theater speakers and audiophile.
References in periodicals archive ?
The company stated that the divested Nuclear Imaging operations encompass two manufacturing facilities and a total of more than 800 employees in locations across the globe, including nearly 350 in the St.
Nuclear imaging is widely used for preclinical and clinical cell trafficking [77]; some nuclear imaging studies for in vivo EV monitoring (Table 1) have been published [20, 21, 41, 42].
Leon is the first and only cardiologist in the area to offer cardiac stress test with PET nuclear imaging. This program is a perfect match for the San Angelo area which is dedicated to offering more imaging services comparable to those offered in larger metropolitan areas.
Malik explained various features of the Nuclear Imaging Service and said that Nuclear Imaging is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amount of radioactive material to diagnose and determine the severity of or treat a variety of diseases including many types of cancers, heart diseases, Gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorder and other abnormalities within the body.
21 -- Nueclear Healthcare Ltd (NHL), a radiology diagnostics company aiming to provide low cost nuclear imaging services in India, today announced that it has entered into a binding agreement to receive INR 22 crores from Norwest Venture Partners (NVP).
Mike began his career at GE in 1979 as an electrical design engineer in nuclear imaging; he holds numerous patents in the field of medical imaging and instrumentation.
The current issue of Internet Journal of Medical Update focuses on emerging applications of nanotechnology in the fields of nuclear imaging and cancer nanotechnology.
Wittram (radiology, Harvard Medical School) provides an atlas that helps clinicians, fellows, and residents in radiology, respiratory medicine, emergency medicine, cardiology, and cardiothoracic surgery identify and diagnose different pulmonary vascular pathologies, including common, uncommon, and rare diseases, using different types of imaging, from radiography, angiography, and multislice CT, to MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear imaging. After covering normal anatomy and common variants, he gives concise, bulleted information and images of cardiac disease, embolism, congenital anomalies, in situ thrombosis, aneurysm and varix, vasculitis, infection, trauma and intervention, tumors, systemic and lung diseases, and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
This obviates the need in these cases for the more expensive options of both nuclear imaging and invasive angiography.
"It is always challenging to detect significant coronary artery disease in patients at the physician's office and often required a physical stress test, including nuclear imaging and often cardiac catheterization" said lead investigator Ron Waksman, MD, Associate Director, Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Centre and professor of medicine (cardiology) at Georgetown University in Washington DC.
- Diagnostic imaging (nuclear imaging, interventional radiology, capsule endoscopy and others) - Drug delivery (needle free injections, transdermal systems, inhalation system, infusion system) - Medical diagnostics (biosensors, proteomics, nanotechnology, and others) - Mobility aid technologies (wheel chairs, scooters, walkers and others) - Minimal/non-invasive surgery (stents, bariatric surgery, medical robotics and others) - Micro-fluids and MEMS (Miniature medical pressure sensors, bio chips, protein chips) - Non-invasive monitoring (continuous blood glucose monitoring) - Biomaterials (bionic limbs, joint replacement, antimicrobial wound dressing and others) - Bio-implants (neurostimulation and others) - Tele-medicines

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