nullification


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nullification,

in U.S. history, a doctrine expounded by the advocates of extreme states' rightsstates' rights,
in U.S. history, doctrine based on the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution, which states, "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
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. It held that states have the right to declare null and void any federal law that they deem unconstitutional. The doctrine was based on the theory that the Union is a voluntary compact of states and that the federal government has no right to exercise powers not specifically assigned to it by the U.S. Constitution. The Kentucky and Virginia ResolutionsKentucky and Virginia Resolutions,
in U.S. history, resolutions passed in opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were enacted by the Federalists in 1798. The Jeffersonian Republicans first replied in the Kentucky Resolutions, adopted by the Kentucky legislature in Nov.
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 declared (1799) nullification to be the rightful remedy by the states for all unauthorized acts done under the pretext of the Constitution. A closely reasoned reinforcement to the doctrine of nullification was set forth—in response to the tariff of 1828, which favored Northern interests at the expense of the South—by John C. CalhounCalhoun, John Caldwell
, 1782–1850, American statesman and political philosopher, b. near Abbeville, S.C., grad. Yale, 1804. He was an intellectual giant of political life in his day. Early Career

Calhoun studied law under Tapping Reeve at Litchfield, Conn.
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 in his South Carolina Exposition (1828). The strong pro-Union stand of President Jackson brought forth further remonstrances from Southern leaders. After enactment of the tariff act of 1832 South Carolina called a state convention, which passed (1832) the ordinance of nullification. This ordinance declared the tariff laws null and void, and a series of enactments in South Carolina put the state in a position to resist by force any attempt of the federal government to carry the tariff act into operation. President Jackson in reply dramatically issued a strong proclamation against the nullifiers, and a force billforce bill,
popular name for several laws in U.S. history, notably the act of Mar. 2, 1833, and the Reconstruction acts of May 31, 1870; Feb. 28, 1871; and Apr. 20, 1871.
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 was introduced into the U.S. Senate to give the President authority to use the armed forces if necessary to execute the laws. Jackson, however, felt that the South had a real grievance and, behind his show of force, encouraged friends of compromise, led by Henry Clay, to prepare a bill that the South would accept. This compromise tariff was rushed through Congress, and after its passage (1833) the South Carolina state convention reassembled and formally rescinded the ordinance nullifying the tariff acts. To preserve its prerogative it adopted a new ordinance nullifying the force bill. But the issue was not pressed further until the election of Abraham Lincoln, when the doctrine of secessionsecession,
in political science, formal withdrawal from an association by a group discontented with the actions or decisions of that association. The term is generally used to refer to withdrawal from a political entity; such withdrawal usually occurs when a territory or state
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 was brought to the foreground.

Bibliography

See C. S. Boucher, The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina (1916, repr. 1968); C. M. Wiltse, John C. Calhoun: Nullifier, 1829–1839 (1949); W. W. Freehling, ed., The Nullification Era (1967); M. D. Peterson, Olive Branch and Sword: The Compromise of 1833 (1982).

References in periodicals archive ?
Pray the court to order the conduct of another elective National Convention for the election of national chairman within 30 days aof nullification of the elective national convention held on December 09, 2017;
2) This focus on the jury as a site of nullification is understandable--jury nullification has been a prominent feature of American criminal justice since the country's founding, and the jury plays a singular role as the ultimate moment of community input into a criminal case.
To this end, I examine four examples of the phenomenon: pious perjury in eighteenth-century England, fabrications of fault or domicile in order to obtain divorces prior to reforms of divorce laws in the 1960s and 1970s, post-Reconstruction white southern jury nullification, and the current widespread practice of police perjury to avoid the exclusionary rule.
Among the carcasses readers will find "the cult of Ronald Reagan," "militant and Jacobin universalism," the Cold War, then the never-ending neoconservative search for new wars, crony capitalism, the nullification deniers, and on and on.
But there is a growing movement here for new legislation following the nullification earlier this year of an anti-gay law.
Codelco has announced the nullification of the deal with the Sacyr for nonpayment of a mining road.
The possible nullification of the TEOG results will likely lead to a change in the scores of a huge number of the eighth graders, according to education specialists.
The nullification movement, which holds that the U.
Many Free Staters will tell you that one of their biggest wins so far was the passage and strengthening of jury nullification laws.
That tendency may be labeled, for convenience: nullification.
Although challenges on the basis of nullification have been unsuccessful, states have succeeded in challenging certain federal laws as infringements of state rights under the 10th Amendment.