nullification

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nullification,

in U.S. history, a doctrine expounded by the advocates of extreme states' rightsstates' rights,
in U.S. history, doctrine based on the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution, which states, "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
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. It held that states have the right to declare null and void any federal law that they deem unconstitutional. The doctrine was based on the theory that the Union is a voluntary compact of states and that the federal government has no right to exercise powers not specifically assigned to it by the U.S. Constitution. The Kentucky and Virginia ResolutionsKentucky and Virginia Resolutions,
in U.S. history, resolutions passed in opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were enacted by the Federalists in 1798. The Jeffersonian Republicans first replied in the Kentucky Resolutions, adopted by the Kentucky legislature in Nov.
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 declared (1799) nullification to be the rightful remedy by the states for all unauthorized acts done under the pretext of the Constitution. A closely reasoned reinforcement to the doctrine of nullification was set forth—in response to the tariff of 1828, which favored Northern interests at the expense of the South—by John C. CalhounCalhoun, John Caldwell
, 1782–1850, American statesman and political philosopher, b. near Abbeville, S.C., grad. Yale, 1804. He was an intellectual giant of political life in his day. Early Career

Calhoun studied law under Tapping Reeve at Litchfield, Conn.
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 in his South Carolina Exposition (1828). The strong pro-Union stand of President Jackson brought forth further remonstrances from Southern leaders. After enactment of the tariff act of 1832 South Carolina called a state convention, which passed (1832) the ordinance of nullification. This ordinance declared the tariff laws null and void, and a series of enactments in South Carolina put the state in a position to resist by force any attempt of the federal government to carry the tariff act into operation. President Jackson in reply dramatically issued a strong proclamation against the nullifiers, and a force billforce bill,
popular name for several laws in U.S. history, notably the act of Mar. 2, 1833, and the Reconstruction acts of May 31, 1870; Feb. 28, 1871; and Apr. 20, 1871.
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 was introduced into the U.S. Senate to give the President authority to use the armed forces if necessary to execute the laws. Jackson, however, felt that the South had a real grievance and, behind his show of force, encouraged friends of compromise, led by Henry Clay, to prepare a bill that the South would accept. This compromise tariff was rushed through Congress, and after its passage (1833) the South Carolina state convention reassembled and formally rescinded the ordinance nullifying the tariff acts. To preserve its prerogative it adopted a new ordinance nullifying the force bill. But the issue was not pressed further until the election of Abraham Lincoln, when the doctrine of secessionsecession,
in political science, formal withdrawal from an association by a group discontented with the actions or decisions of that association. The term is generally used to refer to withdrawal from a political entity; such withdrawal usually occurs when a territory or state
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 was brought to the foreground.

Bibliography

See C. S. Boucher, The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina (1916, repr. 1968); C. M. Wiltse, John C. Calhoun: Nullifier, 1829–1839 (1949); W. W. Freehling, ed., The Nullification Era (1967); M. D. Peterson, Olive Branch and Sword: The Compromise of 1833 (1982).

References in periodicals archive ?
But TE said in a statement made to the Disclosure Department at the Exchange on Sunday that it was not informed of any decision by the Commissioners Body regarding the suggestion to nullify a tender for 20% of its shares.
stressed that Abbas has not requested Al-Malki to nullify the complaint, noting
With Ozil, Ramsey, Wilshere, Giroud, Cazorla they have some great attacking players and we need to nullify their threat.
However, some of KEB minority shareholders are seeking to lodge a lawsuit to nullify Hana's share swap.
Justice Saeed Khosa observed " we will have to see if the SC can nullify the Appellate bench decision.
IAN Bell reckons that Warwickshire must get used to having to work extra hard for their wickets this season as teams strive to nullify their potent seam attack.
They have some good players like David McGoldrick, Callum Ball and John Fleck so they have goal threats all over the pitch, but it gives us confidence that we are able to nullify that.
The administrative court held 11 sessions during which it thoroughly considered the case and finally decided to nullify the case.
But Allardyce could switch from a 4-4-2system to 4-3-3 in a bid to nullify Saints' threat at St Mary's.
We expect them to use a lot of one-off runners, and it is important we get off the line and try to nullify that.
Idaho is leading a charge to nullify the federal health reforms by citing the "Kentucky Resolutions," believed to be written by Thomas Jefferson in 1798.
Additionally, organizations like Don't Tread on Me: Rise of the Republic, Liberty Pulse, and The New American magazine are national supporters of Nullify Now