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former village, now in N Queens borough of New York City, SE N.Y.; chartered 1645, inc. into Greater New York City with Queens in 1898. Although chiefly residential, Flushing has gained importance as a trading and manufacturing center. It was chartered (as Vlissingen) by the Dutch West India Company to English settlers, who anglicized the name. It is the seat of Queens College of the City Univ. of New York and the Queens Botanical Gardens. The Bowne House (1661) and the Quaker meetinghouse (c.1696) are landmarks of the colonial period. Flushing Meadow (now a park) was the site of two New York World's Fairs (1939–40, 1964–65) and temporary headquarters of the United Nations (1946–49). Citi Field, home of the New York Mets (baseball), is there, as is the United States Tennis Association Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, the site of the U.S. Open championships.


Netherlands: see VlissingenVlissingen
or Flushing
, city (1994 pop. 44,211), Zeeland prov., SW Netherlands, on the southern coast of the former island of Walcheren. Its manufactures include shipbuilding, chemicals, and gears.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(in mining), the packing of material into a worked-out area formed underground as a result of the extraction of minerals. Flushing materials include crushed rock from quarries (sand, gravel, pebbles, slate, and limestone) and mine tailings and industrial waste products (rock produced as a by-product during the mining of a mineral in the shaft, shaft rubble, waste from dressing plants, and slag from metallurgical works and boilers). Binding agents are added in so-called solid flushing. Flushing may be complete (if the entire excavated space is filled) or partial (if only a certain part of the space is filled—in the form of strips or layers).

Flushing is classified according to the method of conveyance and packing used (hydraulic, pneumatic, hydropneumatic, mechanical, gravity-flow, and manual). The process is used to control mine pressure, to reduce mineral losses under the ground, to prevent underground fires, to reduce deformations of the ground surface, to prevent damage to objects near the areas being worked, to increase the safety of mining operations, and to improve underground mine ventilation, as well as for the disposal in the shaft or mine of rock excavated during the preliminary development work.


Geront’ev, V. I. Metody zakladki vyrabotannogo prostranstva. Moscow, 1948.
Smoldyrev, A. E. Mekhcnizatsiia zakladochnykh rabot pri razrabotke mdnykh mestorozhdenii. Moscow, 1958.
Furman, A. A. Zakladka vyrabotannogo prostranstva. Moscow, 1958.
Dobrovol’skii, V. V., V. F. Erofeev, and S. G. Skopin. Primenenie zakladki vyrabotannogo prostranstva pri razrabotke mestorazhdenii poleznykh iskopaemykh. Moscow, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(civil engineering)
The removal or reduction to a permissible level of dissolved or suspended contaminants in an estuary or harbor.
Removing lodged deposits of rock fragments and other debris by water flow at high velocity; used to clean water conduits and drilled boreholes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


a port in the SW Netherlands, in Zeeland province, on Walcheren Island, at the mouth of the West Scheldt river: the first Dutch city to throw off Spanish rule (1572). Pop.: 45 000 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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