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Nymphalid butterfly dispersal among forest fragments at Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil.
For example, under the classification of Cronquist (1981), the diverse host list of the nymphalid tribe Nymphalini includes as dominant themes three families in the order Urticales (Hamamelidae), two in Rosales (Rosidae), one in Salicales (Dillenidae), and two in Fagales (Hamamelidae).
Feeding habits and change of body composition with age in three nymphalid butterfly species.
For example, NORRIS (1935) mentions that sap exudates from wounded tree bark attracts several species of Nymphalid butterflies, and by feeding on those liquids become completely intoxicated and unable to fly.
Neotropical Dalechampia species are host to several oligotrophic nymphalid lepidopteran herbivores including, in approximate order of abundance, Hamadryas spp.
Similar plant-insect systems of nymphalid butterflies that feed on iridoid-glycoside containing host plants have been used by other investigators to examine host plant-specific population differentiation, but no generalizations have yet emerged from these efforts.
For example, mimicry complexes in Ithomiini and Heliconiinae nymphalid butterflies are segregated by microhabitat, with co-mimics flying in areas of similar disturbance, topography and at a similar height above the ground (Mallet & Gilbert 1995; Beccaloni 1997; Estrada & Jiggins 2002; Elias et al.
This last mentioned genus is particular because according to HALL & HARVEY (2002: 185) it possesses specialized androconial organ: the abdominal coremata, which is a pair of eversible tubes of membranous type only present in certain nymphalid subfamilies (Danainae, Satyrinae and Morphinae).
Using three nymphalid species with differing possibilities of using adult nutrients for reproduction, I found that, as the possibility of using adult-derived nutrients increased, the pattern of reserve use changed from one where a constant fraction of available reserves was allocated to reproduction to one where reserves were hoarded until late in life.