Many of the identified phyla, including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Verrucomicrobia, are primarily obligate anaerobes
. Proteobacteria contain both facultative and obligate anaerobes
Pseudomonas and Streptococcus are facultative anaerobes; Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Parvimonas are obligate anaerobes
; Eikenella is a microaerophile (preferring 10% oxygen, 10% carbon dioxide).
Recent strategies that bypass culturing and identify microorganisms by DNA sequencing have revealed that up to 90% of bacteria in wounds are facultative or obligate anaerobes
[21, 22], although their roles in pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance are unknown.
This covers pathogenic obligate anaerobes
, whose growth is favored in an environment with a higher pH.
Bacteria of the genera Clostridia are gram-positive, obligate anaerobes
that include C.
In addition, by cultivating all the samples in an aerobic environment, we selected for obligate or facultative aerobes and against obligate anaerobes
. Historically, only TSA and aerobic incubation have yielded bacteria from bed bugs, but we are using Anaerobic Transfer Medium (ATM) and anaerobic conditions in our next experiments.
Thus, mono-culture of gramnegative bacteria and obligate anaerobes
prevailed in our patients that were characteristic for severe intraabdominal infections.
The enhanced effect of ozonated water on the anaerobes could be because the obligate anaerobes
are sensitive to and become inactive in oxygen-rich conditions.
Clindamycin, a chlorine-substituted derivative of lincomycin, is effective against gram-positive cocci and obligate anaerobes
. (1) Although clindamycin is considered a bacteriostatic drug, it can be bactericidal at high concentrations.