observational equivalence


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observational equivalence

Two terms M and N are observationally equivalent iff for all contexts C[] where C[M] is a valid term, C[N] is also a valid term with the same value.
References in periodicals archive ?
thus is to get behind observational equivalence in order to identify and
A regulator faced with the observational equivalence of
formalizes the concepts of observational equivalence and the distinction
m + b)/(am + b) must hold for any m in the support if observational equivalence holds.
This is essentially a problem of observational equivalence.
A third approach to dealing with observational equivalence is to employ a counterfactual.
Once again we have an observational equivalence problem.
Simon's solution to such observational equivalence can be restated in slightly different terminology (for details see Hoover [1990], pp.
In such a system, she shows, observational equivalence is detectable because one cannot take linear combinations of true causal equations and still have the errors in different equations uncorrelated with each other (cf.
Cartwright's imposition of temporal order on causal chains is formally sufficient to eliminate the problem of observational equivalence.
The next section describes the observational equivalence problem confronting researchers interested in distinguishing between the Real Bills and Quantity Theory approach to inflation in the face of rapid deficit-financing money growth and the institutional setting which resolves the observational equivalence dilemma.
THE OBSERVATIONAL EQUIVALENCE OF THE REAL BILLS DOCTRINE AND THE QUANTITY

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