observational equivalence


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observational equivalence

Two terms M and N are observationally equivalent iff for all contexts C[] where C[M] is a valid term, C[N] is also a valid term with the same value.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
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thus is to get behind observational equivalence in order to identify and
A regulator faced with the observational equivalence of
formalizes the concepts of observational equivalence and the distinction
Observational equivalence of ([??], [??], [??]) and (J, a, b) with respect to the covariance structure may be written as the requirement that
Substitute [V.sub.m] = a[H.sub.m] + b[I.sub.m] and [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] into Equation (11), this indicates that [[kappa].sub.2] = ([??]m + b)/(am + b) must hold for any m in the support if observational equivalence holds.
Second, how can we use counterfactuals to solve problems of observational equivalence?
This is essentially a problem of observational equivalence. The outcomes we observe may be consistent with both arguments rooted in structural or institutional factors and in accounts that focus on the unique characteristics of a particular leader.
Simon's solution to such observational equivalence can be restated in slightly different terminology (for details see Hoover [1990], pp.
If temporal ordering does not provide a way of resolving observational equivalence, another way must be found.
In addition to the directly estimated parameters, it presents sums of the |rho~'s as an indicator of how nearly observationally equivalent to a difference-stationary process the trend model is (the closer |Sigma~ |rho~ is to unity, the nearer the process to observational equivalence to a difference-stationary process).
The next section describes the observational equivalence problem confronting researchers interested in distinguishing between the Real Bills and Quantity Theory approach to inflation in the face of rapid deficit-financing money growth and the institutional setting which resolves the observational equivalence dilemma.
THE OBSERVATIONAL EQUIVALENCE OF THE REAL BILLS DOCTRINE AND THE QUANTITY

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