found that, in a relatively small study, 10 of 28 patients with TBI had sleep apnea and that the majority of these events were central apneas rather than obstructive apneas
Mixed apnea is a combination of central and obstructive apnea
, that is, a period of no effort to breathe and then a period where an effort is made but there is an obstruction to airflow (Sanders & Basner, 2007).
A percentage of children evaluated for ADHD have also been identified with obstructive apnea
symptoms, such as snoring, difficulty in morning waking and dozing off in school.
In mixed apnea, a period of central apnea is followed by a period of obstructive apnea
before regular breathing resumes.
* Mixed apnea occurs when the sleeper experiences a brief period of central apnea normally followed by a longer period of obstructive apnea
. For this reason people with mixed apnea often snore.
and hypopneas are considered significant if they last for more than 10 seconds.
Eight patients had obstructive sleep apnea, defined as more than one obstructive apnea
episode per hour.
A common type of apnea in children is obstructive apnea
. It is often caused by enlarged tonsils and adenoids.
Her brother Richard, 18, has a similar condition called obstructive apnea
, which forces his throat to close.
Episodes of central apnea, obstructive apnea
with hypopnea, as well as disturbances in the sleep/wake cycle, are most common.
When an obstructive apnea
occurs, it is terminated by a sudden arousal, that is, lightening of sleep or awakening from sleep .
Muscle sympathetic nerve traffic, which reflects peripheral sympathetic activity, is inhibited during the first phase of the obstructive apnea
, gradually increases during the second phase followed by a strong inhibition during the last phase.