hydrocephalus

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hydrocephalus

(hī'drəsĕf`ələs), also known as water on the brain, developmental (congenital) or acquired condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of body fluids within the skull. The congenital form may be associated with other abnormalities. The acquired form may follow meningitis or another cerebral inflammation or tumor. The accumulation of fluid causes compression of the brain and enlargement of the skull, sometimes with separation of bone structures. Paralysis and death may result or, at the least, mental retardation. Many forms of therapy, including surgery, have been attempted, but usually without much success in extreme cases.

Hydrocephalus

 

edema of the brain, an excessive increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity.

The cause of hydrocephalus is either excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain or obstruction of its efflux from the ventricles of the brain, as a result of inflammatory processes, tumors, or other diseases leading to closing of the apertures through which the fluid escapes from the ventricles. Congenital hydrocephalus is caused by congenital syphilis and toxoplasmosis; acquired hydrocephalus originates (usually in early childhood) after meningitides, menin-goencephalitides, head traumas, intoxications, and other afflictions. The most common symptom of hydrocephalus in children is an enlarged skull. In places where the bones of the skull did not knit normally, rounded, pulsating protrusions may form. Frequently there is strabismus and nystagmus. Sometimes a reduction of vision and hearing, headaches, and nausea are observed. Intelligence is diminished. Treatment of hydrocephalus calls for the removal of the cause, sometimes by surgery. It can be prevented by the elimination of conditions injurious to the mother during pregnancy and the prevention of neuroinfections during childhood.

REFERENCE

Arendt, A. A. Gidrotsefaliia i ee khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow,1948.

V. S. ROTENBERG

hydrocephalus

, hydrocephaly
accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain because its normal outlet has been blocked by congenital malformation or disease. In infancy it usually results in great enlargement of the head
References in periodicals archive ?
la), along with obstruction of the mesencephalic duct and development of obstructive hydrocephalus (Fig.
While diagnoses of obstructive hydrocephalus or encephalitis/meningitis occurred in [approximately equal to] 20% of persons hospitalized for neurocysticercosis, these more severe presentations accounted for 40% of the total charges incurred.
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a widely accepted treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus.
Death from cysticercosis: seven patients with unrecognized obstructive hydrocephalus.
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) was performed by William Mixter in 1923 with the aid of a urethroscope which he used to examine and perform the procedure in a child with obstructive hydrocephalus (34,35).
Even though ETV is mainly used for cases with obstructive hydrocephalus, recent data suggest excellent results in cases with non-obstructive hydrocephalus such as normal pressure hydrocephalus (36).
Rare cases may represent obstructive hydrocephalus or be markers for other underlying CNS pathology.
Subsequent brain computed tomography demonstrated a 3x2 cm haematoma in the right caudate head that had ruptured into the lateral ventricle, with resultant obstructive hydrocephalus (Figure 1).
The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan shows a large, predominantly solid tumour arising from the roof of the 4th ventricle, attenuating the 4th ventricle and causing obstructive hydrocephalus (Fig.
The cyst typically blocks the foramen of Monro, causing obstructive hydrocephalus involving only the lateral ventricles.
In this report we described an unusual presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in an adult AIDS patient in whom ventriculitis and obstructive hydrocephalus without evidence of focal parenchymal lesion were observed as the primary manifestations of cerebral toxoplasmosis.
Patients who present with arachnoid cysts early in childhood have associated central nervous system malformation, which often leads to obstructive hydrocephalus at the level of the foramen of Monro.

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