can liberate [the self] ontologically rather than epistemologically, by unshackling it from the hegemony of the other.
, and the Control of Women, Cultural Dynamics 11(3), 323-355.
In "The Immobility of China," Anthony Pagden studies Orientalism and Occidentalism
in the Enlightenment, and particularly how Voltaire and Leibnitz questioned the myth of "Oriental despotism" (rule without law) in Muslim, Chinese, and Indian civilizations and why they saw the East as superior in ethics and politics, but inferior in logic and science due to tradition, slavery, and lack of religious freedom.
As they analyze Occidentalism
, Buruma and Margalit try very hard to understand the enemies of the West.
DESCRIBES HOW the East sees the West; it is the flipside of Orientalism, its stereotypical other.
As Edward Said in his seminal book Orientalism (1978) portrays stereotypes that Western Orientalists have had of the East, so Buruma and Margalit in Occidentalism
portray the stereotypes that "Occidentalists" have of the West.
This immersion led to the rejection of the West as individualistic, decadent, corrupt, and soft--all of the attributes of Occidentalism
If intellectuals there know more, they often serve a fashionable Occidentalism
, as the report states.
Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit, Occidentalism
(New York: Penguin, 2004), p.
The theoretical and historical insights provided in Occidentalism
not only liberate the study of anti-Westernism in the Muslim world from an exceptionalist framework of an eternal conflict between Islam and Christianity, they also suggest different policy responses.
They are placing into doubt the validity of and thus contributing to a critical reflection about colonial legacies--about occidentalism
, in Walter Mignolo's terms.
As a result, the danger will be greatly diminished of reverting to the logic of Occidentalism
, a derivative of Orientalism--a logic that perpetuates the same kind of ethnocentrism, dogmatism, and dualism as does the logic of Orientalism, though this time it is performed against Westerners or against those who have been tirelessly dishing out the logic of Orientalism.