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The external occipital protuberance on the external lamina of the squamous occipital bone was prominent and sharp (Figure 3) while it was reported to be wide and blunt in Mehraban sheep [8] and sharp and pointed in Kagani goat [6].
The x-coordinate is the reference line and indicates the most lateral point of external occipital protuberance to the most lateral point of acromion.
The accuracy in the classification is lower than those reported for majority of sexual dimorphism morphological indicators for the occipital bone, and hence, the indexes and tables of the expected range of foramen magnum dimensions in skulls of men and women should be used only as a first approximation to the diagnosis of sex, which is more accurate when we look at the qualitative features of the occipital bone, such as the roughness of the nuchal lines, the shape of the occipital condyles, and the characteristics of the external occipital protuberance.
From qualitative point of view, the roughness of the nuchal lines and the prominence of the external occipital protuberance are good indicators for the diagnosis of sex (Rogers, 2005).
--Roughness of the occipital bone: in the occipital bone in male exist a remarkable development of superior and inferior nuchal lines, as well as the external occipital protuberance, occipital crest and the insertion ruggedness, where inserting semispinosus muscle of the head.
The external occipital protuberance was located on the external lamina of the squamous occipital bone which was sharp and pointed, in contrast, it was wide and blunt in sheep (May), small and double in leopard cat (Sarma et al., 2001) and pointed in dum pig (Sarma & Sarma, 2002).The median occipital crest was well developed in Kagani goat as recorded in the present study.
Technically they're enlarged external occipital protuberances, and slightly less technically, they're bone spurs -- brought on by weight shifting from the spine to the base of the skull, which happens over and over again when you're living life tethered to a miniature screen.