Due to comparative based approach in different occupational communities the present study is of particular importance and interest.
Health education interventions should be imposed to reduce transmission and reinfection in the studied occupational communities. This study will serve as a benchmark for successive post-intervention surveys and analysis.
While access to informal channels of communication are a benefit of communities of practice, at StatNet the benefit is unique in that participants access channels of informal communication across organizations, but also across and within occupational communities
. This cross-group communication builds community.
Although Ubisoft keeps track of its occupational communities
, none of the firm's knowing communities are formally organized; they are not official entities with clear-cut boundaries.
The argument has a long tradition in sociological research, both in studies on strike propensity (the notorious 'isolated mass' (6)), and on 'occupational communities
', more specifically those of miners.
Work is a social activity, and the creation of occupational communities
is one of its most important consequences, often helping to cement the ideological power of employers and thereby to frustrate union efforts to improve the quality of work itself (see Richards 2008 for a recent case study).
These are essentially 'occupational communities
' (Van Maanen and Barley 1984).
My own understanding of this phenomenon came about from seeing more clearly that cultures arise in whole occupational communities
and that, therefore, parts of organizations are as much a reflection of the occupational backgrounds and experiences of some of their members as they are of their own unique organizational histories (Van Maanen and Barley, 1984).
The emergence of occupational communities
and communities of practice around new technology is but one illustration of this trend.
Van Maanen & Barley  suggest that it may take more sense to view careers in terms of occupational communities
rather than organization.
Besides these, The Nature of Work also includes essays by Rose Coser (sex equity), Lewis Coser (forced labor), Cynthia Epstein (occupational communities
), Arthur Stinchcombe (occupational communities
), Stanton Wheeler (avocations), Eliot Freidson (volunteer work), Theda Skocpol (work and welfare), Rosabeth Kanter (workplace participation), and Amitai Etzioni and Paul Jargowsky (high-tech jobs).
To account for the contrasting political strategies of unions in the two industries, Marks examines three sets of factors: the effects of labor market conditions on the ability of different groups of workers to sustain their occupational communities
and defend their place in the division of labor against technological innovation and market shifts; how international variations in legal environemtns, or different degrees of state repression, shaped the ideological orientations of unions as well as their relations with political parties; and the effects of "organizational revolution," which led to the rise of national unions and the politicization of industrial relations at the turn of the century.