Continentality and oceanity are important parameters which describe local climatic conditions.
In recent years, regional features of continentality and oceanity have been analysed in Greece , Turkey , and Pakistan .
Therefore, the aim of this research is to evaluate the spatial distribution of the widely accepted Conrad's Continentality Index (CCI) and Kerner's Oceanity Index (KOI) in the middle and high latitudes of land areas of the Northern Hemisphere, as well as to evaluate the changes in these indexes since the middle of the twentieth century and their connections to atmospheric circulation.
The oceanity of the climate increases with index values.
We opted to analyse continentality and oceanity above a latitude of 30[degrees] in the Northern Hemisphere, where temperature seasonality is high.
We also analysed the impact of atmospheric circulation on seasonal temperature indicators and thus on the variability of climate continentality and oceanity. The Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns (NHTPs) derived from 500 hPa height field are the leading modes of low-frequency atmospheric circulation variability in the Northern Hemisphere.
The 10.0[degrees]C isotherm diverts to the south influenced by the oceanity
factor, which is conspicuous in the province of Buenos Aires.
It presents greater oceanity
, with upper thermomediterranean to the upper supramediterranean thermotypes, and with the upper semiarid to the upper subhumid ombroclimes.
From his early, playful use of Schele De Vere's "mephitic vapors," through his gaining inspiration from the book's physical appearance, to his infusing Stray Leaves' oceanity
into his poetry, Whitman wrote Stray Leaves into Leaves of Grass.
All municipalities (N=435) were classified into bio-geographic regions based on climate conditions (oceanity
vs continentality) and altitude.
Pre-cipitation has increased steadily throughout the past cen-tury (Alexandersson, 2006), and a tendency for increasing oceanity
is perceivable, particularly in the past few decades (Tuomenvirta et al., 2000).
Plant communities such as herb slopes, heaths of Empetrum hermaphroditum rich in moss, and snow patch vegetation were used to estimate the degree of oceanity
(Bocher, 1963), i.e., an oceanic climate with relatively higher mean annual precipitation rates, fewer hours of sunshine during the summer, and colder average temperatures during the summer.