Therefore, the

odds ratio is the ratio of the odds, which simplifies to the exponentiated coefficient.

From the definitions above, we immediately see that the three measures have quite different ranges; both the relative risk and

odds ratio vary between 0 and ~, while the risk difference is limited to a much smaller interval between -1 and 1.

When stratified by age, the

odds ratio for new IBD diagnosis in adults was 1.43 and in children was 1.89.

Another study20 showed the

odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for current cigarette smokers as 2.57(CI=2.2-3.0), respectively as compared to the nonsmokers, meaning that current smokers had 2.57 times higher risk of bladder cancer as compared to nonsmokers.

In prevalence case-control studies the prevalence

odds ratio is the standard effect measure, just as in an incidence case-control study the (incidence)

odds ratio is the standard effect measure (Morgenstern and Thomas 1993; Pearce 1998).

For both men and women working in the chemical industry there were

odds ratios of 5.56 and 5.69 respectively for developing asthma.

A history of eating disorders or miscarriage also were significant predictors of postpartum depression, with

odds ratios of 6.5 and 7.5, respectively.

Individuals with hypofibrinolysis (those in the fourth quartile of CLT), compared with those in the first quartile, had an

odds ratio for venous thrombosis of 1.8 after adjusting for age and sex.

In the adjusted analysis, men who had seen a provider within the previous year had a reduced likelihood of chlamydia infection (

odds ratio, 0.6); this measure was not associated with chlamydia risk among women.

Acute endometritis was independently associated with black race (

odds ratio 1.7) as well as infections with C.

Data obtained from a large, ongoing population-based, case-control study show that women who used any SSRI between 1 month before and 3 months after conception had a significantly increased likelihood of having an infant with omphalocele, compared with those who reported no SSRI exposure during pregnancy (adjusted

odds ratio, 3.3).

The association was strongest among children with the inattentive type of ADHD (

odds ratio 3.7) and less so among those with the hyperactive-impulsive type (

odds ratio 1.8) or the combined type (

odds ratio 2.5).