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in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.


Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.


What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.


1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
References in periodicals archive ?
Furthermore, I find that Servicemembers who truly understand never off duty become exceptional role models and mentors to all others.
Gwent Police prosecuted 18 officers caught speeding off duty.
Special Counsel Merrick Bobb, who provides semiannual reports to the county Board of Supervisors about the Sheriff's Department, said it is fine for officers to carry concealed weapons off duty as long as they are capable of fully performing their duties.
If your department regs merely say, "Have a loaded firearm with you off duty," a .
The number of hours officers are off duty because of illness has increased because of the calculation of longer shifts, even as the number of officers calling in sick has dropped.
One has been off duty on full pay for 15 months and the other nine months.
Scotland Yard is also offering a pounds 10,000 reward for information leading to the capture of James Francis Hurley, aged 42, who was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1989, after being convicted of the murder of off duty police officer Francis John Mason, aged 27, in Hertfordshire.
The last quarter of the complaints include additional unethical and nonviolent illegal conduct by the police both on duty and off duty.
Prior to the October 1 rule, commercial motor vehicle drivers using a sleeper berth, required to take 10 hours off duty, could split sleeper-berth time into two periods of not less than 2 hours.
Jon Freeman, an off duty firefighter at Leamington fire station ran to their rescue and administered first aid until the ambulance arrived.
DC Patterson, who is on secondment outside the Northumbria force, was commended by the court judge for his actions in coming to the aid of the publican even when he was off duty.
The nature and extent of the work being performed off duty is then subject to review annually and permission can be withdrawn if it is subsequently determined to be ``incompatible'' with the officer's on-duty detective duties.