duty

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duty,

in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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.

Duty

 

a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.

O. G. DROBNITSKII

What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.

duty

1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
References in classic literature ?
He talked with a quartermaster off duty, an intelligent man who promptly prodded him with the socialist propaganda and forced into his hands a bunch of leaflets and pamphlets.
It by no means follows that because a man is a sexton, and constantly surrounded by the emblems of mortality, therefore he should be a morose and melancholy man; your undertakers are the merriest fellows in the world; and I once had the honour of being on intimate terms with a mute, who in private life, and off duty, was as comical and jocose a little fellow as ever chirped out a devil-may-care song, without a hitch in his memory, or drained off a good stiff glass without stopping for breath.
Couldn't a man take an afternoon off duty with a bad headache--for once?
The spring latch, whose key was reposing for ever off duty in the late Mr Verloc's waistcoat pocket, held as well as usual.
One Saturday evening, I being off duty, the men asked me to give them an extra bucket of water or so-- for washing clothes.
All his time off duty he spent in his cabin with the door shut, keeping so still in there that he was supposed to fall asleep as soon as he had disappeared; but the man who came in to wake him for his watch on deck would invariably find him with his eyes wide open, flat on his back in the bunk, and glaring irritably from a soiled pillow.
Under the street lamp she seemed a beggar off duty.
Old experienced angels are like officers of the regular army - they dress plain, when they are off duty.
French police officers will be allowed to carry their weapon while off duty to protect civilians as long as France maintains the state of emergency following the Paris shootings, police said on Thursday.
The man is understood to be an officer with the Cleveland force and had been visiting the island while off duty.
Therefore, most military professionals would provide the short answer: "No, we are never really off duty.
It was alleged the suspect sexually assaulted a woman when he was off duty.