Type and frequency of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are related to astrocytic and oligodendroglial
differentiation and age: a study of 1, 010 diffuse gliomas.
Currently, the most common molecular markers in neurooncology are 1p/19q codeletion in oligodendroglial
tumors, mutations in the IDH1/2 genes in diffuse gliomas, hypermethylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter in glioblastomas and anaplastic gliomas, alterations in the EGFR and PTEN genes, and 10q deletions in GBMs, as well as BRAF alterations in pilocytic astrocytomas.
Traditionally, oligodendrogliomas are identified by tumor cells that mimic oligodendroglial
In this case, they are oligodendroglial
progenitors for acute spinal cord injury.
Because of cross sectioning of spindled or cylindrical nuclei, neoplastic fibrillary astrocytes may also appear to have occasional rounded nuclear profiles, raising the differential diagnosis of high-grade oligodendroglial
(HGO) neoplasms (WHO grade III anaplastic oligodendroglioma [AO, O3] and WHO grade III anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma [AOA, MOA3]).
Other conference presentations focused on the gene expression and neurotrophic protein secretion patterns of hESC-derived oligodendroglial
progenitor cells for acute spinal cord injury and the functional characterization of hESC-derived islets for diabetes and hESC-derived chondrocytes for arthritis and other orthopedic applications.
Attention has been drawn to a subset of "nonspecific cells" lacking cytoplasmic specializations, (1) which could represent oligodendroglial
Progenitors for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury
In general, brain tumors are classified into 2 major groups, primary and metastatic, and the primary brain tumors can be classified further into 3 groups: neuroepithelial (eg, astrocytic, oligodendroglial
, ependymal, choroid plexus, neuronal, and pineal parenchymal tumors), nonneuroepithelial (eg, meningioma, nerve sheath tumors, malignant lymphoma, pituitary adenoma, and germ cell tumors), and others (ie, tumors of unknown origin, eg, capillary hemangioblastoma).
Significant interobserver variability exists with respect to the diagnosis of oligodendroglial
neoplasms, especially their distinction from astrocytoma and mixed oligoastrocytoma.
Studies published in Stem Cells and Development show that GRNOPC1, the company's hESC-based oligodendroglial
progenitor cell therapy, produces multiple nerve growth factors and proteins that enhance survival and stimulate regeneration of neurons damaged during spinal cord injury.
Geron scientists and collaborators presented data at the International Society for Stem Cell Research's (ISSCR) annual meeting pertaining to four products in development: (1) GRNOPC1, Oligodendroglial
Progenitor Cells for acute spinal cord injury; (2) GRNIC1, Islet Clusters to treat patients with Type 1diabetes; (3) GRNCM1, Cardiomyocytes for patients who suffered a myocardial infarction and (4) osteoprogenitor cells for bone fractures and osteoporosis.