But those strictures yield a suboptimal result when the oligopolies
are negotiating with independents: the price they arrive at is suboptimal, which results in fewer independent networks and fewer choices for consumers.
2) This Interest in mixed oligopolies
is due to their importance to the economies of Europe, Canada, and Japan.
Possibly an equally critical question is whether mergers of medical groups and hospitals in the long-term will serve to reduce direct competition and potentially generate savings or do they expand into fiscally and politically powerful oligopolies
that eventually adversely affect physicians and the public and, therefore, require stringent government regulation.
It also reflects the genius with which he created the Frederick Douglass industry, which, like certain other nineteenth-century oligopolies
, now chugs along on its own steam, having outlived the man who produced it.
When all that's settled, oligopolies
divide the market up.
Running parallel to this policy debate has been the growth of a body of trade theory (exemplified by the work of Krugman and that of Brander and Spencer) that moves beyond the simplifying assumptions of Heckscher-ohlin to encompass the phenomena of increasing returns to scale, the influence of industrial oligopolies
, and the importance of technological externalities.
Thus, at the end of the first decade of deregulation, the industries affected could again be described as oligopolies
-- but now not regulated oligopolies
, but market-driven oligopolies
As Lamoreaux documents through detailed case studies, both price and nonprice competition in these nascent oligopolies
were such that the probability of retaliation was uncertain.
While the textile market is profoundly influenced by its oligopolies
of first world parentage, there is an important set of underdeveloped countries, the "giant dwarfs" (Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Brazil, Mexico, India, and perhaps Singapore) that have made an important place for themselves in the international textile market.
As recently as 1990, the only exceptions to this national monopoly rule were the oligopolies
found in the United Kingdom - British Telecom and Cable & Wireless (Mercury Communications), in Japan - KDD, IDC, and Japan Telecom, and in the United States - AT&T, MCI, and Sprint(2).
We have many such oligopolies
that the government should eliminate but against which it is doing nothing.
The EESC therefore calls for a binding legal text to be drafted as a matter of urgency, for fair competition to be encouraged and for action to be taken against illegal oligopolies