But those strictures yield a suboptimal result when the oligopolies
are negotiating with independents: the price they arrive at is suboptimal, which results in fewer independent networks and fewer choices for consumers.
The BEREC report sets out a number of criteria which one might use to distinguish between 'good' and 'bad' tight oligopolies
. It also draws an interesting parallel between these criteria and the SIEC test applied in merges, which serves a similar purpose.
As food systems became increasingly dominated by ultra-processed products, fast food and soft drinks, food oligopolies
made enormous profits and acquired the power to set prices and determine the terms and conditions of their market sectors.
Our next research project will be to analyze nonlinear oligopolies
and investigate their local and global stability.
"The most urgent problem for competitivity in the EU energy market is acting vigorously against cartels," said Turmes, arguing that some 95% of the electricity and gas market is controlled by 12 energy oligopolies
. This does not even get a single sentence.
They show that the presence of a public firm actually harms welfare when the total number of firms is more than two and less than six, the type of tight oligopolies
governments might be most interested in controlling.
Measuring market power in multi-product oligopolies
. Applied Economics, 22(10), 1365-1376 (October).
"It's inexcusable that in Honduras there exists oligopolies
of big chains of news media, print, radio, television," he said.
The senior economic counsel for antitrust at the Justice Department recently contributed to the aura of unreality that has come to envelope the oligopoly problem by decreeing, ex cathedra, that "[i]nterdependence is normal and innocent in oligopoly"; that "there is little reason to believe" this is a significant phenomenon; that courts henceforth must "exclude testimony on structural conditions [i.e., levels of market concentration]"; and that prosecuting oligopolies
is futile because, as he sees it, no remedy is available.
A critical characteristic of many oligopolies
is the requirement of high capital investment to build capacity, which results in high fixed costs.
(1) Mixed oligopolies
are common in developed, developing, and former communist transitional economies.
They are seeking to expand their ties in the face of worldwide realignment among big automakers and resource development enterprises which could result in oligopolies
in these areas, Nippon Steel officials said.