Parallel exclusion may also be implemented in dominant strategies when the excluders are not competing oligopolists
, but monopolists.
For a fringe firm, the denominator of (2) is smaller than the denominator of the symmetric Cournot oligopolist
by the positive amount (2n + 1)b for k = n/2 + 1 where n is even, or by the positive amount bn for k = (n + 1)/2 + 1 where n is odd.
its fellow oligopolists
created multiple similar sugar cereals,
George Stigler sought to reconcile the hypothesis that oligopolists
wish to collude to maximize joint profits "with facts, such as that collusion is impossible for many firms and collusion is much more effective in some circumstances than in others.
First, he defines the general conditions and motivations that make it possible and desirable for oligopolists
that have only equity in their capital structure to engage in collusion.
88) An economist then is needed to testify that oligopolists
need not enter explicit agreements for their tacit behavior to have a noncompetitive character (and therefore impose social costs).
If the three firms competed as Cournot oligopolists
then each firm would have produced an output of 1/4.
This causes the other oligopolists
to realize that, unless they charge a lower price than planned, they will lose sales to the tying firm for those consumers who value the monopoly-supplied product.
In the twenty first century, capitalist governments or state agencies are not the only sources of market regulation--much regulation and reconstruction of markets is undertaken by the monopolists, monopsonists, oligopolists
and oligopsonists who normally dominate capitalism.
The answer is yes, but only if one makes strong, restrictive assumptions about firms' behavior, such as assuming that firms behave as Cournot oligopolists
When forced to take sides in the civil war, most merchant oligopolists
of the Merchant Venturers Society favored the King, many shopkeepers and craftsmen favored Parliament.
According to Caves (1971), MNEs are oligopolists
having intangible capital in the form of trademarks, patents, special skills, and/or other organizational abilities.