oligosaccharide


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Related to oligosaccharide: polysaccharide

oligosaccharide:

see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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Oligosaccharide

A carbohydrate molecule composed of 3–20 monosaccharides (simple sugars). Generally, free oligosaccharides do not constitute a significant proportion of naturally occurring carbohydrates. Most carbohydrates that occur in nature are in the form of monosaccharides (such as blood sugar, or glucose), disaccharides (such as table sugar, or sucrose, and milk sugar, or lactose), and polysaccharides (such as starch and glycogen, polyglucose molecules, or chitin). See Glucose, Lactose, Monosaccharide, Polysaccharide

The monosaccharides of multiple sugar units such as oligosaccharides are connected with each other through bonds called glycosidic linkages. They are linked primarily to other sugars and to other molecules through aldehyde or ketone reducing groups.

Most naturally occurring oligosaccharides are linked either to proteins (glycoproteins) or to lipids (glycolipids). Glycoconjugates are present in essentially all life forms and particularly in cell membranes and cell secretions. Many hormones are glycoproteins, and an increasing number of enzymes have been shown to have sugars attached. Antigenic properties of the human red blood cell ABO blood group system are determined by glycolipid oligosaccharides. In fact, all the major protein components of blood serum, with the exception of serum albumin, are glycoproteins. See Blood groups, Cell membranes, Glycolipid, Glycoprotein

Many changes in the structures of oligosaccharides of glycoconjugates have been detected in cancer cells. Changes or differences in oligosaccharide structures are generally the result of differences in biosynthetic pathways or of degradative pathways. An understanding of glycoconjugates in normal biological systems and in certain disease states is currently of great importance.

oligosaccharide

[‚äl·ə·gō′sak·ə‚rīd]
(biochemistry)
A sugar composed of two to eight monosaccharide units joined by glycosidic bonds. Also known as compound sugar.
References in periodicals archive ?
Oligosaccharides are complex sugars composed of a variable number of monosaccharide units and are among the most biologically diverse and important carbohydrates in biological systems.
The effects of several oligosaccharides on growth performance, nutrient digestibilities, and cecal microbial populations in young chicks.
Effects of dietary mannnan oligosaccharide, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, or both on the live performance and intestinal microbiology of turkeys.
This could be affected by the different concentration of sulphuric acid and hydrolysis temperature to break the glucosidic linkage between the oligosaccharide.
Newburg envisions one day giving toddlers oligosaccharide supplements to stave off diseases that tend to creep in following weaning, especially in poor countries where diarrheal diseases abound.
Instead of using a basic qualitative measure of relative abundance, raw peak intensity data could be used to calculate ratios between different oligosaccharides, both pathological and physiologically present species.
1994) A novel oligosaccharide, GlcAO1-4XylO1-(4-methylumbelliferone), synthesized by human cultured skin fibroblasts.
The diverse oligosaccharide structures on glycoproteins and -lipids are involved in numerous molecular interactions in physiologic and pathologic situations, and defining these oligosaccharides can be a challenging task.
Effects of mannan oligosaccharide and anantimicrobial product in nursery diets on performance of pigs reared on three different farms.
The amount of each type of oligosaccharide is fed into a mathematical algorithm that was developed from the caries histories (DFT) from young adults.
All contain inulin, an oligosaccharide compound that is highly soluble and easily extracted into hot water.