oligosaccharide


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Related to oligosaccharide: polysaccharide

oligosaccharide:

see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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Oligosaccharide

A carbohydrate molecule composed of 3–20 monosaccharides (simple sugars). Generally, free oligosaccharides do not constitute a significant proportion of naturally occurring carbohydrates. Most carbohydrates that occur in nature are in the form of monosaccharides (such as blood sugar, or glucose), disaccharides (such as table sugar, or sucrose, and milk sugar, or lactose), and polysaccharides (such as starch and glycogen, polyglucose molecules, or chitin). See Glucose, Lactose, Monosaccharide, Polysaccharide

The monosaccharides of multiple sugar units such as oligosaccharides are connected with each other through bonds called glycosidic linkages. They are linked primarily to other sugars and to other molecules through aldehyde or ketone reducing groups.

Most naturally occurring oligosaccharides are linked either to proteins (glycoproteins) or to lipids (glycolipids). Glycoconjugates are present in essentially all life forms and particularly in cell membranes and cell secretions. Many hormones are glycoproteins, and an increasing number of enzymes have been shown to have sugars attached. Antigenic properties of the human red blood cell ABO blood group system are determined by glycolipid oligosaccharides. In fact, all the major protein components of blood serum, with the exception of serum albumin, are glycoproteins. See Blood groups, Cell membranes, Glycolipid, Glycoprotein

Many changes in the structures of oligosaccharides of glycoconjugates have been detected in cancer cells. Changes or differences in oligosaccharide structures are generally the result of differences in biosynthetic pathways or of degradative pathways. An understanding of glycoconjugates in normal biological systems and in certain disease states is currently of great importance.

oligosaccharide

[‚äl·ə·gō′sak·ə‚rīd]
(biochemistry)
A sugar composed of two to eight monosaccharide units joined by glycosidic bonds. Also known as compound sugar.
References in periodicals archive ?
Newburg envisions one day giving toddlers oligosaccharide supplements to stave off diseases that tend to creep in following weaning, especially in poor countries where diarrheal diseases abound.
Therefore, various oligosaccharides are now being added to livestock feed as prebiotics to improve animal health, production, and immune ability and to influence the gut microbiota (White et al.
The composition and structure of the carbohydrate attached to a glycoprotein are determined by the glycosylation machinery available in a specific cell type, changes in which can significantly alter the structure of the oligosaccharide.
The report focuses on eleven commercial categories of functional oligosaccharides in China, including isomalto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, galacto oligosaccharide, stachyose, raffinose, soy-oligosaccharide, isomaltulose, chitosan-oligosaccharide, trehalose, and malto-oligosaccharide.
For example, the ratio of a galactosylated oligosaccharide at m/z 1171 with a normal oligosaccharide at m/z 879 was at 1.
Contribution of oligosaccharide and polysaccharide digestion, and excreta losses of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids, to dietary metabolisable energy values in broiler chickens and adult cockerels.
When scientists started analyzing breast milk, they found that the third-largest constituent of breast milk, making up about 1 percent by volume, is a mixture of indigestible sugars known as oligosaccharides.
He has carried out detailed structural studies of oligosaccharide antibody complexes, and led a team that solved the first crystal structure of a carbohydrate-antibody complex.
To the Editor: Avilamycin and evernimicin (Ziracine), which belong to the everninomicin class of drugs, are oligosaccharide antibiotics active against numerous gram-positive bacteria, including emerging pathogens such as glycopeptide-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci (1,2).
The ban against using antibiotics as feed additives in poultry diets of many countries has led to an increase in research regarding alternative feed additives, including prebiotics such as mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and probiotics like Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC).
scientists have used glycanases and glycosyltransferases in membrane reactors to produce oligosaccharide mixtures with controlled molecular weight distributions.
The poor uptake of this oligosaccharide as a diagnostic marker for Pompe disease may be partly attributable to its occurrence in a range of other disorders, including glycogen storage diseases types III and VI (19) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (20); increases in oligosaccharide concentrations may also take place during pregnancy (21).