oligosaccharide


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to oligosaccharide: polysaccharide

oligosaccharide:

see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Oligosaccharide

A carbohydrate molecule composed of 3–20 monosaccharides (simple sugars). Generally, free oligosaccharides do not constitute a significant proportion of naturally occurring carbohydrates. Most carbohydrates that occur in nature are in the form of monosaccharides (such as blood sugar, or glucose), disaccharides (such as table sugar, or sucrose, and milk sugar, or lactose), and polysaccharides (such as starch and glycogen, polyglucose molecules, or chitin). See Glucose, Lactose, Monosaccharide, Polysaccharide

The monosaccharides of multiple sugar units such as oligosaccharides are connected with each other through bonds called glycosidic linkages. They are linked primarily to other sugars and to other molecules through aldehyde or ketone reducing groups.

Most naturally occurring oligosaccharides are linked either to proteins (glycoproteins) or to lipids (glycolipids). Glycoconjugates are present in essentially all life forms and particularly in cell membranes and cell secretions. Many hormones are glycoproteins, and an increasing number of enzymes have been shown to have sugars attached. Antigenic properties of the human red blood cell ABO blood group system are determined by glycolipid oligosaccharides. In fact, all the major protein components of blood serum, with the exception of serum albumin, are glycoproteins. See Blood groups, Cell membranes, Glycolipid, Glycoprotein

Many changes in the structures of oligosaccharides of glycoconjugates have been detected in cancer cells. Changes or differences in oligosaccharide structures are generally the result of differences in biosynthetic pathways or of degradative pathways. An understanding of glycoconjugates in normal biological systems and in certain disease states is currently of great importance.

oligosaccharide

[‚äl·ə·gō′sak·ə‚rīd]
(biochemistry)
A sugar composed of two to eight monosaccharide units joined by glycosidic bonds. Also known as compound sugar.
References in periodicals archive ?
The health benefits associated with Galacto oligosaccharide include cholesterol reduction, anticarcinogenic effects, and development in intestinal health.
In 1954 the work of these groups converged, landing on oligosaccharides as the unknown "bifidus factor" in human breast milk (Bode, 2012).
Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and/or mannan oligosaccharide on performance, blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks.
Through the agreement with Lonza, DuPont Nutrition & Health will obtain a significant volume and high quality, reliable supply chain to be able to provide functional human milk oligosaccharide 2-fucosyllactose (2-FL) for these growing global markets.
This is because the human body actually does not produce the enzyme that breaks down oligosaccharides. It is the bacteria in the large intestine that finally breaks down these sugars.
Human milk oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrates found in breast milk, are an important breakthrough innovation in infant formula, developing a product with more of the health benefits associated with human milk.
Table 4 shows that [X.sub.1][X.sub.2], [X.sub.1][X.sub.3], and [X.sub.2] do not have a significant effect on the oligosaccharide conversion rate, while the others were significant.
Oligosaccharides derived from lactulose (OsLu) are a new generation of prebiotic oligosaccharides with enhanced prebiotic properties, as it has been shown in in vitro studies [10-12].
Oligosaccharides are complex sugars composed of a variable number of monosaccharide units and are among the most biologically diverse and important carbohydrates in biological systems.
The first step involves a chitinase-catalyzed, highly selective transglycosylation of the Gal-GlcNAc oxazoline derivative to an oligosaccharide, giving rise to a new oligosaccharide having a galactose unit at the non-reducing end.
The effects of several oligosaccharides on growth performance, nutrient digestibilities, and cecal microbial populations in young chicks.
Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth performance, survival, body composition, and some hematological parameters in giant sturgeon juvenile (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754).