olive oil, pale yellow to greenish oil obtained from the pulp of olives by separating the liquids from solids. Olive oil was used in the ancient world for lighting, in the preparation of food, and as an anointing oil for both ritual and cosmetic purposes. It is produced mainly in Algeria, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey. The characteristics of the oil vary with the climate, cultivation, and variety of olive. Olive oil is one of the most digestible of the edible oils. To make the finest, or extra-virgin olive oil, the fruit is gathered when fully ripened, ground to a paste under granite or steel millstones, layered over straw mats, and pressed in a hydraulic press. Today, most olive oil is produced by just one pressing. The resulting oil is separated from the juice by settling or by centrifuge and then filtered. Olive oil of good quality is ready to use, without further refinement. Although olive oil occupies a relatively minor place in world food consumption, it has, in recent years, become a stronger export item, and a succession of international agreements have been signed since 1959 to protect its market. Olive oil is now the third best-selling cooking oil in the United States. Both gourmets and health professionals have praised its qualities, thereby contributing to its growing popularity. Olive oil is a monounsaturated fat and, unlike butter, lard, and other fats, contains a large proportion of easily digested fats and no cholesterol. Olive oil is also a good source of vitamin E, which is thought to help protect humans against cancer and heart disease. The principal fat in the diet of countries where it has long been cultivated, olive oil is often used in place of cream and butter and as a cooking fat and salad oil. Although olive oil is chiefly used as a food or in food preservation, it is also used in soaps, certain pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.
See A. Dolamore, The Essential Olive Oil Companion (1989).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.
a fatty vegetable oil extracted from the pulp of the olive. Olive oil is characterized by a high content of oleic acid glycerides (about 80 percent) and a low content of linoleic acid glycerides (about 7 percent) and saturated acid glycerides (about 10 percent). The fatty-acid composition of olive oil may vary considerably, depending on climatic conditions. Olive oil has an iodine number of 75–88 and a pour point of –2° to –6°C.
Olive oil is widely used in the canning industry and in cooking (for example, as salad dressing). It is also used in cosmetics manufacture and in medicine (preparation of solutions of vitamins and medicines for injections).
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
olive oil[′äl·əv ‚ȯil]
Pale- or greenish-yellow edible oil; main components are olein and palmitin; soluble in ether, chloroform, and carbon disulfide; derived from the pulp of olive tree fruit; used in foods, ointments, linaments, and soaps, as a lubricant, and for tanning. Also known as Florence oil; lucca oil; sweet oil.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.