dream

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dream,

mental activity associated with the rapid-eye-movement (REM) period of sleep. It is commonly made up of a number of visual images, scenes or thoughts expressed in terms of seeing rather than in those of the other senses or in words. Electroencephalograph studies, measuring the electrical activity of the brain during REM sleep, have shown that young adults dream for 1 1-2 to 2 hours of every 8-hour period of sleep. Infants spend an average of 50% of their sleep in the REM phase (they are believed to dream more often than adults) a figure which decreases steadily with age. During dreams, blood pressure and heart rate increase, and breathing is quickened, but the body is otherwise immobile. Studies have shown that sleepers deprived of dream-sleep are likely to become irritable and lose coordination skills. Unusually frightening dreams are called nightmares, and daydreams are constructed fantasies that occur while the individual is awake. Studies have demonstrated the existence of lucid dreaming, where the individual is aware that he is dreaming and has a degree of control over his dream.

Sigmund FreudFreud, Sigmund
, 1856–1939, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. Born in Moravia, he lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881.

His medical career began with an apprenticeship (1885–86) under J.
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, in his pioneering work The Interpretation of Dreams (1900, tr. 1913), was one of the first to emphasize dreams as keys to the unconscious. He distinguished the manifest content of dreams—the dream as it is recalled by the individual—from the latent content or the meaning of the dream, which Freud saw in terms of wish fulfillment. C. G. JungJung, Carl Gustav
, 1875–1961, Swiss psychiatrist, founder of analytical psychology. The son of a country pastor, he studied at Basel (1895–1900) and Zürich (M.D., 1902).
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 held that dreams function to reveal the unconscious mind, anticipate future events, and give expression to neglected areas of the dreamer's personality. Another theory, which PET scan studies appear to support, suggests that dreams are a result of electrical energy that stimulates memories located in various regions of the brain.

Bibliography

See J. A. Hobson, The Dreaming Brain (1988); M.-L. von Franz, Dreams (1991).

dream

[drēm]
(psychology)
An involuntary series of visual, auditory, or kinesthetic images, emotions, and thoughts occurring in the mind during sleep or a sleeplike state, which take the form of a sequence of events or of a story, having a feeling of reality but totally lacking a feeling of free will.

dream

1. 
a. mental activity, usually in the form of an imagined series of events, occurring during certain phases of sleep
b. (as modifier): a dream sequence
2. 
a. a sequence of imaginative thoughts indulged in while awake; daydream; fantasy
b. (as modifier): a dream world
References in periodicals archive ?
It will attempt not only to describe oneiric material gathered in different epochs, as well as to share direct observation carried out while the subjects were sleeping, but also to consider practices linked to the local meanings of, and attitudes towards, night, sleep and oneiric inspiration.
Ascanio is at a point in his oneiric life in which he has almost accepted his upcoming fatherhood, has a mistress, and has an adventurous seafaring lifestyle.
Coleridge's statements, for instance, about poetry as a "rationalized dream" (CN II 2086) and a "waking dream," according to Toor, points to his being a dream theorist and expounder notwithstanding certain critics' allegations of the poet's lack of coherence in oneiric theories (85).
The narrative mode of oneiric realism renders the interpretive category of narrative reliability problematic.
Although the American pictorialist Gertrude Kasebier (1852-1934), considered one of the most influential photographers of the early twentieth century, is well known for her oneiric photographs of motherhood, she trained her camera on a range of subjects, from animals to moody landscapes.
His films documented and subsequently re-cast some of the most radical art of the time into vibrantly expressive moving images, images characterized by oneiric superimpositions and what Yalkut dubbed "body zooms"--turbulent camera moves engendered not by a lens (he said he couldn't afford one at the time), but by the filmmaker's own kineticism.
No" is much less surreal and oneiric than its predecessors, and some of Larrain's most devout followers will no doubt decry it as a sellout on par with that of its protagonist, but what it loses in arthouse credibility it gains in crossover potential.
Not so lucky were fellow apprentices Mark Coumbe and Harry Bentley, who both picked up two-day bans - Coumbe for overuse of the whip on Oneiric, who was second in a Brett Johnson-trained one-two led home by Eagle Nebula in the seller, and Bentley for careless riding on the unplaced Chorister Sport in the claimer.
This "house of dream-memory"--the oneiric home--is always a protective space, influenced by memories of the first home, even as it shapes those memories and the perception of that home and all future inhabited spaces (15).
The opening is both elegiac and oneiric, setting the tone for the film.
The two major modern philosophers addressed are Hannah Arendt--by Richard Bernstein, discussing American pragmatic fallibilism and Manfred Kuehn, a Kantian, addressing Rawlsian and Marxist distinctions between good and bad--and Paul Ricoeur, brilliantly summarized by Alan Olson, for whom layered, plurivocal symbols (cosmic, oneiric, poetic) give rise to thought reflecting on experience, not theodicy (94-95).
After 1880, according to Machado da Rosa, Eca explored the oneiric experiences of his characters and in the process enlarged the frame of conscious reality: "Talvez que a sua maior originalidade resida na integracao do subconsciente com a consciencia da personagem, feita sob um plano em que as fronteiras da realidade externa se enredam no mundo da fantasia, sem contudo perderem as suas linhas prosaicas.