onion routing


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onion routing

A method for anonymous communications over a wide area network such as the Internet. It hides the names of the parties that are communicating as well as the data by encrypting the payload in layers, with a different encryption layer for each hop in the route. Using cooperating proxy routers throughout the network, the initiating onion router, called a "Tor client" in the Tor (The Onion Router) system, determines the path and encrypts the layers using the different public keys of each router. It also encrypts the destination for the next hop in each layer. Each router decrypts the payload with its private key, unpeeling the message like an "onion" and sending the data to the next router after the next hop is decrypted and revealed. See Tor, OnionLand Search Engine, onion domain, anonymous Web surfing and anonymous remailer.


Create the Layers and "Unpeel" Them
Each router in an onion routing system "unpeels the onion," revealing the next router address and the next set of data to be encrypted.
References in periodicals archive ?
We found that the most obvious impact of the proposed frameworks, such as cross referencing encrypted queries with data, onion routing and strong audit are among the frameworks that directly limit avenues that can be taken by forensics investigators to approach their investigations.
In this section we recall the improved version of the ModOnions protocol (Onion Routing with Universal Re-Encryption) from [9].
It works in conjunction with an anonymizing proxy server, but it could also be used with other anonymity agents such as Crowds or Onion Routing.
Onion Routing interfaces with off-the-shelf application software and systems through specialized proxies, making it easy to integrate into existing systems.
Capabilities of anonymizing systems connection data system anonymity anonymity personalization Anonymizer low high n/a Onion Routing high n/a n/a Crowds high n/a n/a P3P n/a medium medium LPWA low medium high LPWA provides filtering for data anonymity and full personalization.