operation

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operation

1. Surgery any manipulation of the body or one of its organs or parts to repair damage, arrest the progress of a disease, remove foreign matter, etc.
2. Maths
a. any procedure, such as addition, multiplication, involution, or differentiation, in which one or more numbers or quantities are operated upon according to specific rules
b. a function from a set onto itself

Operation

 

the process of finding a particular quantity (data element) as the result of performance by a digital computer of special actions ordered by a program instruction on one or more initial quantities. The quantities that are the object of the operation are called operands. A distinction is made among data-processing, or computational, operations; control operations; and operations on program instructions (address-substitution operations).

The following computational operations may be distinguished: arithmetical, logic bit-by-bit, and logic operations. Arithmetical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) are those that are performed according to the rules of arithmetic; the operands and the results of arithmetical operations are usually numbers in various forms of representation (with fixed or floating decimal point; fields of variable length) and various systems of notation, such as binary, ternary, or decimal. Logic bit-by-bit operations—logical addition, multiplication, biconditional implication and nonimplication (that is, comparison)—are performed according to the rules of algebraic logic; the operands and results of such operations are individual bits of the initial quantities represented in binary form. Logic operations, such as search, access, sorting, and grouping, are performed on certain bits of the operands or sets of bits (digits, letters, symbols, or bytes). Control operations ensure performance of the program and operation of the computer devices. They include control transfer, cycle organization, access to peripherals, routing of data, interruption of the master program, and changes of the mode of operation of the devices (start, stop, search a zone, read, write, and so on). In address-substitution operations (instruction modification), the operands are the actual instructions of the program. These operations play a large part in the writing of looped programs and in the provision for simultaneous operation on several programs.

Computers can perform various operations by hardware and hardware-software methods. In the second method the elementary operations (micro-operations) that make up more complex operations (macro-operations) are performed by hardware in a sequence determined by the program of the particular macro-operation. The higher the performance of the computer, the greater the assortment of operations that can be performed by hardware. The range of operations of a specialized digital computer is determined by the specific features of the class of problems it solves; for a general-purpose computer the set of operations is chosen by calculating the convenience of solving various classes of problems.

G. B. SMIRNOV


Operation

 

the totality of strikes, encounters, and battles, coordinated and interrelated by objective, time, and place and conducted by operational commands of one or more armed services according to a single concept and plan for fulfilling operational or strategic missions.

The operation as a form of waging military actions first appeared in the wars of the late 18th century and early 19th; the concept of the “operation” took shape practically and theoretically in the early 20th century. By the mid-1930’s the theory of waging a deep offensive operation with massive use of tanks, aviation, artillery, and airborne landings had been worked out in the Soviet armed forces. Present-day operations may include land, naval, air, and airborne operations.

In terms of objectives, operations may be offensive or defensive, whereas in terms of time, they are either simultaneous or successive (one develops another). Depending on the composition of forces involved, operations are classified as strategic, front (groups of armies), fleet, army, or flotilla operations. The objectives and content of an operation are determined by the military and political objectives of the combatants in the theater of war, the composition of participating forces, the concrete conditions of the operational-strategic situation, the nature of the actions of enemy and friendly forces, and terrain conditions. The most typical indexes of the scope of an offensive operation are its depth, duration, width of zone of attack, and rate of advance of forces. For the defensive operation, the indexes are the width of the zone, the depth of construction of the defense, and the duration of the defensive operation. The preparation for and conduct of operations are the subject of strategy and operational art.

P. K. ALTUKHOV

What does it mean when you dream about an operation?

A medical procedure being performed on the dreamer may signify old issues being “cut out” or patched up. If the dreamer is doing the operating, then deep unconscious issues are being faced, worked on, and healed. The overall implication of this dream depends on one’s experiences with medical operations.

operation

[‚äp·ə′rā·shən]
(computer science)
A process or procedure that obtains a unique result from any permissible combination of operands.
The sequence of actions resulting from the execution of one digital computer instruction.
(industrial engineering)
A job, usually performed in one location, and consisting of one or more work elements.
(mathematics)
An operation of a group G on a set S is a mapping which associates to each ordered pair (g, s), where g is in G and s is in S, another element in S, denoted gs, such that, for any g, h in G and s in S, (gh) s = g (hs), and es = s, where e is the identity element of G.

operation

(1) See operation code.

(2) Any manual or machine activity. See process.
References in periodicals archive ?
Yesterday, the company which was auctioning off the remaining Sunjuice equipment and units in Llantrisant said that half of the site had been sold to companies with plans to open operations there.
The bank had earlier said that it would soon open operations in the Baltic region.
At the end of the war, Bangkok Bank was the first foreign bank to open operations in Vietnam, with the Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi branches opening in 1992 and 1994 respectively.
REGINA, Saskatchewan -- HTC Purenergy (TSX VENTURE:HTC) is pleased to announce the signing of an agreement to open operations in China to launch HTC's Carbon Clear Solutions.
A certified public accountant, Eversman focuses on assisting businesses explore, structure, establish and open operations in the Middle East and representing Middle East governmental and business clients with transactions or disputes outside the Middle East.
The Chamber report says critics of outsourcing often overlook the benefits - and the jobs created here - when foreign firms open operations in the U.
NASDAQ: USNA), at its annual international convention, today announced plans to open operations in Singapore in the fourth quarter of 2003.
Leica Microsystems, which will locate the world headquarters of its semiconductor division in Fairfax County, is the 21st German-based firm to open operations in the county, according to the Fairfax County Economic Development Authority (FCEDA).
With its Catalyst projects, the TeleManagement Forum has created a real opportunity for industry-leading providers to collaborate in creating leading-edge open operations solutions," said Michele Campriani, Integrated Service Management Marketing Manager, HP Network and Service Providers Group.