opening

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opening

1. Chiefly US a tract in a forest in which trees are scattered or absent
2. 
a. the first performance of something, esp a theatrical production
b. (as modifier): the opening night
3. a specific or formal sequence of moves at the start of any of certain games, esp chess or draughts
4. Law the preliminary statement made by counsel to the court or jury before adducing evidence in support of his case

Opening

 

the removal of foreign matter and defective fibers from cotton and the loosening of the cotton stock; when the process is applied to flax, wool, or other fibers, it is called scutching. Opening is one of the primary production processes in spinning; scutching is one of the initial operations in processing bast fibers. Either is usually carried out after the initial loosening of the material, when the process of beating is most effective in cleaning the material and results in minimum damage to the fibers.

Opening consists of a blow delivered by the working elements of a machine on a layer of fibers held by the machine’s feed mechanisms; the beating action separates the fiber from the foreign matter. Only the largest and least sticky impurities are removed; individual fibers are separated and sticky impurities removed during subsequent carding operations.

Opening is carried out on cotton openers; scutchers are used for other fibers. The basic working members are a drum with cutting, splitting, or beating elements and the beaters. The drums may have smooth, prismatic elements, large pins, saw-toothed elements, or combinations of these types.

In a cotton opener, the loosened cotton stock is fed from the preceding machine to a feed hopper. A control device maintains a constant height of cotton in the hopper, which ensures an even flow of fiber emerging from the machine. The cotton is fed from the hopper by rollers and feed cylinders to a drum, in which blades turn at a speed of 500–600 rpm and strike the cotton layer. Shreds of cotton are torn off and thrown on a grid surrounding the drum, the cotton is additionally agitated, and the freed weed contaminants fall through the grid spaces into waste chambers. A fan sucks air from the mesh drums, creating an air flow that removes the cotton from the drum blades and the grid and carries it to the mesh drums. As the drums rotate, they form a layer of cotton from individual flakes; the layer is removed from the drum surface by cylinders and transported to feed cylinders, which deliver it to the beater. The beater rotates at 900–1,000 rpm and strikes the cotton layer with cleats; the cotton is loosened, and the separated weed contaminants drop through the grid into a waste chamber. A flow of air removes the cotton from the beater cleats and transports it to the next machine.

Scutchers for bast fibers are also equipped with beating drums. The primary working members in wool scutchers are drums with splitting elements. The intensity of processing is determined by the number of blows delivered per unit length or weight of the fiber layer.

REFERENCE

Mekhanicheskaia tekhnologiia voloknistykh materialov. Moscow, 1969.

V. V. ZHOKHOVSKII

opening

[′ōp·ə·niŋ]
(geography)
A break in a coastline or a passage between shoals, and so forth.
(mining engineering)
A widening of a crevice, in consequence of a softening or decomposition of the adjacent rock, so as to leave a vacant space.
A short heading driven between two or more parallel headings or levels for ventilation.
An area in a coal mine between pillars, or between pillars and ribs.
(oceanography)
Any break in sea ice which reveals the water.
References in classic literature ?
I soon reached him and presently we were both ascending the long ladder toward the opening above.
When we reached the opening at the top Tars Tarkas drew to one side that I might pass out and investigate, as, owing to my lesser weight and greater agility, I was better fitted for the perilous threading of this dizzy, hanging pathway.
The white-robed one being unarmed sought to grasp the other by the wrist of its knife-hand and by the throat, while the latter hopped around on its dainty white feet, seeking an opening for a mortal blow.
I followed them to my study, and found lying on my writing-table still, with the selenite paper weight upon it, the sheet of work I had left on the afternoon of the opening of the cylinder.
The opening of Chattanooga follows the recent openings in Destin, Florida and Baltimore's Inner Harbor, making this the third opening of an on-the-water retail location for MarineMax this quarter.
Switzerland's openings in the French and German sectors have grossed $463K before the weekend begins, with Thursday's figures outperforming "Troy's" bow by 197%.
Chief Executive Officer Frank Cavallaro commented: "As with the recent openings of Converge offices in Germany and Hungary, we are continuing to expand our physical presence in key high tech markets throughout the world.
on September 17, 2004, with three additional openings scheduled for October 1st 2004.
The Vitamin Shoppe has retail locations operating in 19 states and the District of Columbia, with future store openings planned for Arizona, Colorado, Michigan and Oregon.
The results we have seen over the last five months with our three most recent openings, speak to the strength and depth of our overall concept, including our location choices, operations teams, and well-trained staff.
It is a key index of the "Employment Referrals for General Workers" compiled by the Public Employment Security Office on the state of job openings, applicants, and employment.