opening

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opening

1. Chiefly US a tract in a forest in which trees are scattered or absent
2. 
a. the first performance of something, esp a theatrical production
b. (as modifier): the opening night
3. a specific or formal sequence of moves at the start of any of certain games, esp chess or draughts
4. Law the preliminary statement made by counsel to the court or jury before adducing evidence in support of his case

Opening

 

the removal of foreign matter and defective fibers from cotton and the loosening of the cotton stock; when the process is applied to flax, wool, or other fibers, it is called scutching. Opening is one of the primary production processes in spinning; scutching is one of the initial operations in processing bast fibers. Either is usually carried out after the initial loosening of the material, when the process of beating is most effective in cleaning the material and results in minimum damage to the fibers.

Opening consists of a blow delivered by the working elements of a machine on a layer of fibers held by the machine’s feed mechanisms; the beating action separates the fiber from the foreign matter. Only the largest and least sticky impurities are removed; individual fibers are separated and sticky impurities removed during subsequent carding operations.

Opening is carried out on cotton openers; scutchers are used for other fibers. The basic working members are a drum with cutting, splitting, or beating elements and the beaters. The drums may have smooth, prismatic elements, large pins, saw-toothed elements, or combinations of these types.

In a cotton opener, the loosened cotton stock is fed from the preceding machine to a feed hopper. A control device maintains a constant height of cotton in the hopper, which ensures an even flow of fiber emerging from the machine. The cotton is fed from the hopper by rollers and feed cylinders to a drum, in which blades turn at a speed of 500–600 rpm and strike the cotton layer. Shreds of cotton are torn off and thrown on a grid surrounding the drum, the cotton is additionally agitated, and the freed weed contaminants fall through the grid spaces into waste chambers. A fan sucks air from the mesh drums, creating an air flow that removes the cotton from the drum blades and the grid and carries it to the mesh drums. As the drums rotate, they form a layer of cotton from individual flakes; the layer is removed from the drum surface by cylinders and transported to feed cylinders, which deliver it to the beater. The beater rotates at 900–1,000 rpm and strikes the cotton layer with cleats; the cotton is loosened, and the separated weed contaminants drop through the grid into a waste chamber. A flow of air removes the cotton from the beater cleats and transports it to the next machine.

Scutchers for bast fibers are also equipped with beating drums. The primary working members in wool scutchers are drums with splitting elements. The intensity of processing is determined by the number of blows delivered per unit length or weight of the fiber layer.

REFERENCE

Mekhanicheskaia tekhnologiia voloknistykh materialov. Moscow, 1969.

V. V. ZHOKHOVSKII

opening

[′ōp·ə·niŋ]
(geography)
A break in a coastline or a passage between shoals, and so forth.
(mining engineering)
A widening of a crevice, in consequence of a softening or decomposition of the adjacent rock, so as to leave a vacant space.
A short heading driven between two or more parallel headings or levels for ventilation.
An area in a coal mine between pillars, or between pillars and ribs.
(oceanography)
Any break in sea ice which reveals the water.
References in classic literature ?
Torn and bleeding from many cruel wounds, I lay panting upon the ground within the hollow of the tree, while Tars Tarkas defended the opening from the furious mob without.
Drawing closer to the opening leading into the bright daylight, Bradley surveyed what lay beyond.
With a light step and lighter heart, he returned to the center of the cave, and took the place he had left, where he could command a view of the opening next the river.
I beg your pardon, madame, could you tell me where to find a gate or door, made of bars, iron bars, opening into the Rue Scribe.
This book," said the barber, opening another, "is the ten books of the 'Fortune of Love,' written by Antonio de Lofraso, a Sardinian poet.
Again and again did Eric seek to force an opening under the other's guard, and just as often were his blows parried.
The second grotto was lower and more gloomy than the first; the air that could only enter by the newly formed opening had the mephitic smell Dantes was surprised not to find in the outer cavern.
Once or twice Jack seemed disposed to turn restive, but a vigorous and determined application of the whip from the ruthless hand of his master soon compelled him to submission, and Edward's dilated nostril expressed his triumph in the result of the contest; he scarcely spoke to me during the whole of the brief drive, only opening his lips at intervals to damn his horse.
At last my companion paused, and directed my attention to a narrow opening in the foliage.
Presently, however, he heard a light tap at his door, then the door opened slowly, and he could see the flash of Lady Arabella's white dress through the opening.
Toto whimpered a little, but none of the others was frightened, and they kept along the well-trodden path until they came to an opening in the wood, in which were gathered hundreds of beasts of every variety.
Biscarrat, better mounted than his companions, arrived first at the opening of the grotto, and comprehended that fox and hounds were one and all engulfed in it.