First, it is an empirical fact quite beyond dispute that operant conditioning
can work on human beings regardless of our (straightforward) beliefs.
Moreover, many of the studies trained infants, however briefly, to make discriminations or to show preferences, by reinforcing appropriate responses (although the authors rarely, if ever, referred to their training as operant conditioning
The first reason is that learning courses typically focus heavily on the use of operant conditioning
procedures for increasing the likelihood of desirable behaviors and decreasing the likelihood of undesirable behaviors.
Development of a science unit on operant conditioning
at the elementary school level.
Is awareness necessary for operant conditioning
? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 424-425.
preparations usually measure and take into account the operant response selected (lever-pressing, key-pecking, etc.), assuming that the rest of the behaviors vary according to the contingencies scheduled for the operant responses.
There are three basic ways you can use operant conditioning
Part II, "Learning About the Consequences of One's Behavior," covers operant conditioning
and related ideas, including reinforcers as sources of incentive motivation, successive approximation, differential and partial reinforcement, making choices, inference and the similarities between operant conditioning
and natural selection.
of fusional convergence ranges using random dot stereograms.
Research on the modification of apparently "involuntary" isolated muscle contractions using sEMG represented a major early application of operant conditioning
. For example, adult subjects initially were found to be able to voluntarily control vasomotor activity, but only when they were able to observe a polygraph record of their own continuous physiological changes (Razran, 1961).
This includes operant conditioning
and the principles of reinforcement of B.F.
uses an electric shock as the stimulus to decrease the likelihood of a particular behavior being repeated, such as a bird landing on a building.