Therefore, the optimal sequencing of parallel secondary pumps needs to be developed based on the wire-to-water efficiency at any given operating point
, defined by the loop water flow rate and pressure drop.
For overall optimal operation of the PV system, the load operating point
has to match the PV array's MPP.
However, in a "classical" regime (as defined in ), where the operating point
position is selected in the maximum NDC, [J.sub.c] is at its highest within the low-frequency limits, whereas its value drops as the frequency increases as 1/[[omega].sup.4].
Every extrusion system has an operating point
, and it can only be calculated by knowing the tooling pressure drop and the resulting pressure flow in the screw.
In addition, the Dynamic Automation Package (DAP) developed by Starlinger keeps the line working at the optimum operating point
, maintaining not only constant production of consistent quality pellets, higher output and greater flexibility in material processing, but also reducing energy consumption.
The small signal models are obtained using Taylor's series around an operating point
and are expressed as follows:
In order for the compressor model to predict the operating point
(speed), the input power (P') must be adjusted for the difference between the operating suction density and the design suction density.
The first test case has the load resistance kept constant at 2.5*[10.sup.7] (limited by the drive ratio at operating point
This series is said to combine operating point
optimization of the drive system, including a water-cooled three-phase motor and high-efficiency gear unit, with a completely redesigned processing section.
Until now, when the desired operating point
of a fan fell in the 2200 to 3200 rpm range, the designer was left with less than optimum choices.
Then, the operating point
consisting of unit parameters is expressed as
At their optimum operating point
at a current of 20mA, they are particularly efficient and typically deliver an optical output of 3.4mW at a voltage of 3.2V per chip.