It has almost universally been concluded that the various types of feeding echinoderm larvae--echinoplu-teus, ophiopluteus
, bipinnaria, and auricularia--and the en-teropneust tornaria are all evolved from a planktotrophic dipleurula larva, which was the larva of the common am-bulacrarian ancestor (Byrne et al.
The echinoderms, such as Amphiura filiformis, have several larval stages, one of which, the ophiopluteus
, is very abundant in the coastal plankton for a few weeks.
Peptidergic and serotonergic immunoreactivity in the metamorphosing ophiopluteus
of Ophiactis resiliens (Echinodermaia, Ophiuroidea).
Ophionereis fasciata Hutton, 1872, endemic to New Zealand, is a planktotrophic developer (egg diameter 103 [micro]m) with a typical ophiopluteus
1994) and Strathmann (1996) briefly reported observations similar to ours with an ophiopluteus
, as well as observations of faster accumulation of resources for postlarval structures in well-fed holothuroid larvae (Strathmann et al.
The length of the postero-lateral arm in the largest 8-armed ophiopluteus larvae is about 700 [micro]m, and the postero-lateral rod is a spiral structure in the middle of this arm (Fig.
In the 8-armed ophiopluteus, 20 days after fertilization, the tip of the postero-lateral arms begin to swell, and the antero-lateral arms cross (Fig.
The larval skeleton, though reduced, consists of four rods corresponding to the body, posterolateral, anterolateral, and postoral rods characteristic of an ophiopluteus.
Planktotrophic development in ophiuroids occurs through an 8-armed ophiopluteus (Table 1).
Like asteroids, secondary larvae of Ophiopholis aculeata and of an unidentified ophiopluteus collected from the Western Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida originate from the release and development of primary larval structures, specifically, the posterolateral arms.
In some samples, an unidentified ophiopluteus was the most abundant organism present.
Use of dissolved organic matter during brooding in Amphipholis squamata: implications for editing the developmental program of the ophiopluteus