Upper respiratory tract infection, ophthalmia neonatorum
and diarrhea were found to be the most common morbidities associated with HIV-exposed formula-fed infants on ARV prophylaxis.
Prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum
: comparison of silver nitrate, tetracycline, erythromycin and no prophylaxis.
Epidemiology and control of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum
. Bulletin of World Health Organization 1989;67(5):471-78.
Unlike antibiotics, silver nitrate is not effective against Chlamydia trachomatis which is increasingly more important than Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the aetiology of ophthalmia neonatorum
. In 2005, silver nitrate eye solution was deleted from the 14th Model List of Essential Medicines of the World Health Organisation due to inadequate evidence regarding its safety besides the complication of chemical conjunctivitis from the evaporation of solvent specially in the tropics.
First, to our knowledge, the bilateral occurrence of such lesions is extremely rare with only 2 bilateral cases previously reported: 1 case with bilateral gonorrheal ophthalmia neonatorum
, (3) and another involving the optic nerves bilaterally and thought to be due to a congenital anomaly.
Bacterial infections include bullous impetigo, periporitis staphylogenes, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, ophthalmia neonatorum
, necrotising fasciitis, omphalitis and breast abscess.
Administer prophylactic ocular topical medication to all newborns to prevent gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum
. Rating: A recommendation * Screening for visual acuity problems in children 2.
For example, two of the leading causes of blindness and visual impairment in the United States in the early 1900s were ophthalmia neonatorum
He was admitted to the hospital for presumed ophthalmia neonatorum
. The following day, decreased lid swelling, erythema, and eye discharge were observed, with trace conjunctival injection and minimal chemosis.
Other studies from Sub-Saharan Africa reported ophthalmia neonatorum
, ocular trauma, uncorrected refractive error, congenital glaucoma, corneal scarring, measles/Vitamin A deficiency, congenital cataract and genetic eye diseases to be among the commonest causes of childhood blindness.
In addition, because the most common class of infection in the first month of life is primarily caused by STD pathogens present in the birth canal (126), the same mucosal antibodies could be used in a predelivery cervicovaginal lavage or applied to newborns' eyes for studies in the prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum
. Indeed, in some cultures the mother's colostrum, a fluid rich in SIgA, is applied to the newborns' eyes (127).
C trachomatis seems to be a specific pathogen for humans, and 15 serotypes have been recognized. Long before modern laboratory study, it was epidemiologically observed that nongonococcal urethritis in men was related to cervical infection in women, which in turn was related to ophthalmia neonatorum
in infants born vaginally.