opportunity structure

opportunity structure

the social patterning of opportunities that are available to different individuals. Although originally conceived within deviancy theory (Cloward and Ohlin, 1960) as a way of developing Robert MERTON's work on ANOMIE by identifying variations in opportunities to engage in different kinds of illegitimate activity, the concept is now often employed in a general way to draw attention to the fact that social opportunities are rarely evenly or equally distributed. For example, the paucity of women in ÉLITE positions in society generally, as well as in particular organizations, is due to the fact that they confront a different opportunity structure compared with men; working-class under achievement in education is a product of the different opportunity structure which the home and school present to manual workers children compared with those from professional backgrounds, etc. see also EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY.
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Defending a re-conceptualisation of the resilience of historical shadows, I will question their presumed linear effect, and demonstrate that the local experience of violence and destruction persistently haunts the informal, local sphere, escaping into the political realm if and when the opportunity structure arises.
Taylor, Lewis, and Haider-Markel examine the rise of the transgender rights movement and investigate how it is managing to operate so successfully despite its marginalized status within the current political opportunity structure. After reviewing foundational concepts of social movements and discussing the concept of transgender in order to clarify the nature and origin of the transgender rights movement, they cover public attitudes on transgender rights, the political opportunity structure and transgender rights, and transgender policy.
Linking macrolevel spatial analyses to microlevel social movement practices, I build a tentative middle-range framework, spatial opportunity structure, to account for spatial politics in collective actions.
The political opportunity structure paradigm in social movement research states that political opportunities shaped by access to the political system or alliance and conflict structures influence the choice of protest strategies and the impact of social movements on their environment.
The Secretary concluded with four ideas he is "convinced would both transform our children's opportunity structure and, just as importantly, help them believe that they have a future," including broader access to early childhood education and meaningful incentives for great teachers to work in high-poverty schools, as well as mentorships and support for job creation in poor neighborhoods.
Given his broad conception of the opportunity structure, claims of an unpermissive environment could deflect any evidence that disconfirms a hypothesis.
Fishkin describes bottlenecks as narrow spaces in the opportunity structure through which people must pass if they hope to reach a range of opportunities on the other side (p.
The inclusion of National Outlook and Shas in coalition governments created a political opportunity structure and granted them crucial state resources.
The U-2 episode raises questions about how we think about the "opportunity structure" of presidential leadership.
But the legislators and regulators enacting these new protections were responding to pervasive problems they observed in the opportunity structure of our society--problems of a particular kind that I call bottlenecks.
Broken down into its basic components, our integrated theoretical framework entails (1) the institutionalized conflation of successful policing with noble, masculine crime fighting which, while promoted and reinforced at the level of the cultural complex, is likely an extension of enduring (though perhaps undesirable) psychological mechanisms; and (2) the opportunity structure that reflects the variable extent to which communities and all facets of the criminal justice system are able to support officers in their fight against crime.
This argument can also be understood in the light of Milton Esman's 'political opportunity structure'.