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one of the two “conflicting” aspects of a concrete unity that constitute the two sides of a contradiction. Opposites are classified as external or internal. External opposites appear as the poles of a contradiction that presuppose and simultaneously exclude one another and yet exist relatively independently, for example, the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Internal opposites negate each other but nonetheless exist with mutual penetration, for instance, the social nature of production and the private capitalist mode of appropriation.