Different studies have shown that protective immunity against extracellular gram positive microorganisms is influenced by opsonization
. Phagocytosis has the participation of specific antibodies for polysaccharides present in the capsule and is helpful for protection after infection challenge (12,13).
In addition there is evidence that the positively charged NPs could be more promising drug carriers as they are more resistant than the negatively charged ones to the opsonization
and clearance by the macrophages in the blood stream of the patient .
Its biological functions, producing numerous active effectors for immunity regulation and opsonization
, are realized majorly through three activation pathways: classical, lectin, and alternative ways .
The administration of Met causes a significant increase in CRP levels among NP (p < 0.01); this protein produced by the liver, adipose tissue, and monocytes/macrophages in injured areas would be responsible for oxidized LDL opsonization
Lamotrigine is mainly metabolized via glucuronic acid conjugation  and adalimumab seems to be removed by opsonization
via the reticuloendothelial system .
This may also contribute to increased antibody-mediated cytotoxicity via NK and cytotoxic T-cells and activate macrophages through better recognition, opsonization
, or adhesion [37, 38].
The binding of C3b to the surface of E.coli leads to internalization by macrophages by opsonization
. The binding of C3b to E.coli enable the complex to get identified by phagocyte receptors including CRI (CD35) and CR3 (CDllb) to start the phagocytosis process which in turn initiates the process of phagocytosis.
The capsule is resistant to the activation of the alternative pathway of complement on its surface, thus avoiding opsonization
The major functions include activation of inflammation, activation of NK cells, removal of antigen-antibody complexes, and complement activation, with its pathogen opsonization
and membrane attack complex functions, among others.
SP-D is secreted as an acute phase reactant, especially in the presence of infectious agents; it plays a role in host defense mechanisms via adhesion to micro-organisms due to its hydrophilic nature (6, 7), is important in aggregation, neutralization, and opsonization
during phagocytosis, results in direct gram-negative bacterial cell-membrane lysis, inhibiting bacterial/fungal growth in macrophages, and has a aggregation-independent manner (7, 13).
Subsequent steps of the complement cascade lead to formation of several effector molecules, including opsonization
of pathogens, formation of the membrane attack complex inducing osmotic lysis of cells, and recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells by the anaphylatoxins complement C3a and C5a (25).
The bacterial capsule or slime layer effectively protects cells from opsonization
by antibodies, complement lysis, and phagocyte engulfment.