Their findings show that during optic cup
formation, a cell differentiation pattern--pushing cells into the cup shape--is generated, causing a portion of the cells to spontaneously fold into the tissue.
The second synthetic approach designed in the multicellular level or multiculture level can generate functional self-formation tissue to treat neural organ-associating functional disorders such as pituitary gland atrophy and optic cup
Ariff, "Fuzzy c-means (FCM) for optic cup
and disc segmentation with morphological operation," Procedia Computer Science, vol.
In fact, the scientists didn't even know quite how optic cups
developed until Sasai and his team watched it happen spontaneously in the lab.
For instance, the hESC-derived optic cup
is much larger than the optic cup
that Sasai and collaborators previously derived from mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that these cells contain innate species-specific instructions for building this eye structure.
 proposed a novel convolutional neural network based method for optic cup
and disc segmentation.
Now-a-days the automatic screening techniques were most efficient and time consuming but the challenge is to correctly identify the optic disc and optic cup
in the given 2-D fundus image.
Using Lgr4-driven [beta]-galactosidase expression to probe for Lgr4 expression in Lgr4 heterozygotes, we found that at E12.5, Lgr4 is primarily expressed in a layer of mesenchymal cells between the surface ectoderm and the optic cup
; limited expression is also detectable in the lens and the outer layer of the optic cup
During development, light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye, called the retina, forms from a structure known as the optic cup
. In the new study, this structure spontaneously emerged from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)--cells derived from human embryos that arc capable of developing into a variety of tissues--thanks to the cell culture methods optimized by Sasai and his team.
The optic cup
is the white, cup-like area in the center of the optic disc, the circular area at the back of the inside of the eye where the optic nerve connects to the retina.
The optic cushion of Asterias forbesi is particularly suitable as a model because it is known that the microvilli of the putative sensory cells within the optic cup
of a congener (A.
area ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 [mm.sup.2] (median 0.46 [mm.sup.2]) in the right eyes and from 0.33 to 0.61 [mm.sup.2] (median 0.44 [mm.sup.2]) in the left eyes (p<0.001).