neuritis

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neuritis

(no͝orī`tĭs, nyo͝o–), inflammation of a peripheral nerve, often accompanied by degenerative changes in nervous tissue. The cause can be mechanical (injury, pressure), vascular (occlusion of a vessel or hemorrhage into nerve tissue), infectious (invasion by microorganisms), toxic (metallic or chemical poisoning, alcoholism), or metabolic (vitamin deficiencies, pernicious anemia). Symptoms of neuritis that arise from involvement of sensory nerves are tingling, burning, pin-and-needle sensations, or even loss of sensation. If motor nerves are involved, symptoms may range from a slight loss of muscle tone to paralysis. Since neuritis is regarded as a condition that results from a number of disorders, rather than a disease in itself, treatment is directed first at the underlying cause. See neuralgianeuralgia
, acute paroxysmal pain along a peripheral sensory nerve. Unlike neuritis, there is no inflammation or degeneration of nerve tissue. Neuralgia occurs commonly in the area of the facial, or trigeminal, nerve and brings attacks of excruciating pain at varying intervals.
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Neuritis

 

an inflammatory disease of the peripheral nerves. The symptoms of neuritis include pain, paralysis, pareses, and the decrease or loss of nerve sensitivity. Neuritides can result from a wide variety of causes. For example, otitis in the middle ear, and such infectious agents as the virus of herpes zoster can be involved in the pathogenesis of neuritis of the facial nerve. Catarrhal factors and traumas can also play a part in the development of this type of neuritis.

Polyneuritis is a special form of neuritis in which many nerves are involved in the disease process. Some polyneuritides are caused by a neurotropic virus. The roots of the spinal nerve are usually affected (as in polyradiculoneuritis), and often the spinal column and even the brain are affected. The most common causes of polyneuritides are chronic exogenous intoxications, such as those caused by alcohol, botulism toxin, and lead, or endogenous, intoxications, for instance, those resulting from diabetes and uremia.

Patients with neuritis experience pain in the extremities, muscular weakness, disturbances of sensitivity, atrophies and pareses of muscles, changes in skin coloring, sweating, and chilliness. These changes appear predominantly in the regions of the hands and feet. Neuritis is treated by first curing the causative disease and then using antibiotics, analgesics, sedatives, and B vitamins. Physiotherapy is also indicated.

V. A. KARLOV

neuritis

[nu̇′rīd·əs]
(medicine)
Degenerative or inflammatory nerve lesions associated with pain, hypersensitivity, anesthesia or paresthesia, paralysis, muscular atrophy, and loss of reflexes in the innervated part of the body.

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve or nerves, often accompanied by pain and loss of function in the affected part
References in periodicals archive ?
Clinical characteristics of the patients with rON treated with IVIg Patient number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Age 65 57 47 40 39 54 47 55 34 Disease duration 5.5 5.5 2 5 5 3.5 8 5 4 (y) Number of ON 5/- 2/- 2/- 3/- 4/- 2/- 11/- 5/- 5/- attacks Before IVIg/after - - - - - - - - - IVIg Other autoimmune - - - - - - - - - diseases Brain MRI - - - - - - - - - Spinal MRI (+); (+) (+) (-) (-) (-) (-) (-) (-) Serum After AQP4-antibody IVIg (-) CSF OCB (+) (-) NA (-) (-) (+) (-) (-) NA ON, optic neuritis; IVIg, intravenous immunoglobulin; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; AQP4, aquaporine 4; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; OCB, oligoclonal band; (+), positive; (-), negative; NA, not available.
In some rare but disabling conditions such as multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis, PRVEP records provide characteristic electrophysiologic findings even in clinically silent lesions.
The commonest initial clinical presentation was cerebral motor manifestations followed by cerebral sensory features and optic neuritis (Table 2).
Thinner slice and contrasted study should have been performed for the definite diagnosis of optic neuritis.
HZO is defined as the reactivation of VZV inside the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve [7], commonly manifesting as conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis, or keratitis and rarely presenting with optic neuritis [8].
The aim of our research was to find the association of IL-17A and CYP4F2 rs1558139 gene polymorphism with optic neuritis.
A rare manifestation of Crohn's disease in an adolescent: Optic neuritis. Eur J Ther 2017; 23: 180-3.
Sensory and optic neuritis are suggested the common clinical features of paediatric multiple sclerosis in Pakistan.
Upon detailed review of these patients' medical history and systemic and neurological examination, 11 eyes (10 patients) (2.8%) were diagnosed with previous ischemic optic neuropathy (Figure 1), 3 eyes (2 patients) (0.6%) with optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) (Figure 2), 4 eyes (2 patients) (0.6%) with optic disc drusen, 2 eyes (1 patient) (0.3%) with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), and 2 eyes (1 patient) (0.3%) with cerebral palsy.