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(ôräl`), formerly


(yo͝orălsk`, Rus. o͞orälsk`), city (1989 pop. 199,835), NW Kazakhstan, on the Ural River. Among its industries are the repair of agricultural equipment, grain processing, and tanning. It was founded as Uralsk in 1622 by the Ural Cossacks, who fought with Stenka Razin in the uprising of 1667 and against the Bolsheviks in 1918–19. It was an important trade center on the border of European Russia and Kazakhstan.
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Of or pertaining to the mouth.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. relating to, affecting, or for use in the mouth
2. of or relating to the surface of an animal, such as a jellyfish, on which the mouth is situated
3. denoting a drug to be taken by mouth
4. Psychoanal
a. relating to a stage of psychosexual development during which the child's interest is concentrated on the mouth
b. denoting personality traits, such as dependence, selfishness, and aggression, resulting from fixation at the oral stage
5. an examination in which the questions and answers are spoken rather than written
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Etak was developed by Professor Hiroki Nikawa of the Department of Oral Biology and Engineering at Hiroshima University's Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences.
Niklinska et al., "Chronic high-protein diet induces oxidative stress and alters the salivary gland function in rats," Archives of Oral Biology, vol.
Costa Ade, "Comparative immunohistochemical expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG in radicular and dentigerous cysts," Archives of Oral Biology, vol.
"The findings from this study add a fascinating new tool to our understanding and utilization of stem cell biology for regenerative medicine," says Praveen Arany, DDS, PhD, co-author and assistant professor in the Department of Oral Biology in the University at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine.
Critical reviews in oral biology and medicine : an official publication of the American Association of Oral Biologists 2003; 226-233.
Rezzani, "A review of the mandibular and maxillary nerve supplies and their clinical relevance," Archives of Oral Biology, vol.
Kanamura, "Mechanical stress enhances production of cytokines in human periodontal ligament cells induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis," Archives of Oral Biology, vol.
Walter, "Denture plaque and adherence of Candida albicans to denture-base materials in vivo and in vitro," Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, vol.
Adair, "Fluoride in whole saliva, parotid ductal saliva and plasma in children," Archives of Oral Biology, vol.
Dr Farzeen, Assistant Professor Oral Biology, took oath from the students.