microcephalus group are considered to have extreme reduction and modification of the elements of the oral disc
Part 2 A look at features' provides detailed coverage of morphology and features for each of the lifecycle phases typical of frogs, and includes the oral disc
, an important diagnostic feature of many tadpoles.
The ethological changes were accompanied (like oral disc
closure, wilting, and swelling) in the experiment.
For example, Johnston (1982) showed that after grazing on algae, tadpoles left marks on the substrate, and suggested that labial teeth anchored the oral disc
to the substrate while the tadpoles removed food from the substrate with their jaw sheaths.
Chemical elimination is effective, but requires the laborious introduction of toxic injections directly into the oral disc
of each anemone.
The Glycyrrhiza extract (GX) was applied through a new oral disc
that adheres near the sore and slowly releases the Licorice extract as it dissolves.
tadpole oral disc
completely surrounded by marginal papillae and LTRF 2(2)/4) and excludes some previously proposed characters (e.
Six structures of the coral were assayed: oral disc
, tentacles, costae, septa, calice, and coenosarc.
taeniopus has LTRF 2(2)/6-7 and it is a typical stream-dweller with body depressed, eyes dorsal, oral disc
completely surrounded by marginal papillae, large number of teeth rows on posterior labium, and short teeth (Altig & McDiarmid, 1999).
For example, the diameter of the expanded oral disc
can vary greatly with the degree of expansion of the anemone; and the relationship between oral disc
size and tissue volume may vary considerably between species.
large, not emarginate, completely bordered by single row of marginal papillae; submarginal papillae large, present at lateral tips of anterior and posterior tooth rows, becoming less numerous anteriorly and posteriorly, few extending along anterior margin of tooth row A1 (sinistral) or A2 (dextral); two rows of small submarginal papillae present along posterior margin of oral disc
, not extending anteriorly beyond level of tooth row P4; labial tooth row formula 4(4)/6, A1 shortest, A2-A4 of approximately equal length; A4 gap narrow; P1-P6 slightly shorter than anterior tooth rows, P1-P4 approximately equal in length, longer than P5-P6; P5-P6 intermittent; labial teeth in rows P4P6 shorter in height than those in other rows.
Prior to use, 3-year dark-treated anemones (n = 180) with oral disc
diameters of about 2 to 3 mm were placed in 100-ml containers filled with filtered (0.