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in the Soviet system of government, the organized promotion of leading workers and peasants to positions of leadership in state, economic, cooperative, trade-union, and other administrative and ruling bodies. On the eve of the October Revolution and in the first years of Soviet power, Lenin raised the question of involving the workers in state administration. This task was put on a practical basis in the resolutions of the Seventh, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Thirteenth Party Congresses, as well as the Decree of the Central Committee of the ACP (Bolshevik) of Mar. 7, 1927, “On the Tasks of the Party in Promoting Workers and Peasants to the State Administrative Bodies.”

The promotion policy directed by the Communist Party played a major role in breaking up the old state system and creating the new Soviet state organization as well as in forming the new Soviet intelligentsia and strengthening the dictatorship of the proletariat. The selection of persons to be promoted was carried out through the Party and trade unions with the participation of broad masses of the working people. Qualified workers and peasants were promoted to leadership positions. They lacked specialized education but had high class consciousness and experience in life, and they had demonstrated organizational abilities in socialist construction. The promotion policy was most highly developed in the period of building the economic foundation of socialism in the USSR (1921-32). Under the promotion system, by the end of the First Five-Year Plan the leadership cadres of the nation had been increased by 800,000-900,000 persons. The promotion policy began to decline as a system in the early 1930’s. It was gradually replaced by the planned training of specialists in various Soviet secondary and advanced educational institutions.


Lenin, V. I. “Ocherednye zadachi Sovetskoi vlasti.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo rabochikh i partiinaia nedelia.” Ibid., vol. 39.
Sostav Rukovodiashchikh rabotnikov i spetsialistov Soiuza SSR, SSR. Moscow, 1936. Pages 392, 457.
Rabochii klass v upravlenii gosudarstvom (1926-1937 gg.). Moscow,. 1968.
Sovetskaia intelligentsiia (Istoriia formiroaniia i rosta, 1917-1965 gg.). Moscow, 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
Using a mobile platform for oral health promotion provides the opportunity to engage parents, enable communication, and potentially help overcome oral health challenges for the management of oral diseases such as ECC.
[31] The study findings indicated that the majority of schools received no or intermittent support for oral health promotion interventions.
Existing machinery of successful public health campaigns such as the "Pulse Polio" and the "Mid-Day-Meals Scheme" Jawdekar (34) 2013 of the government and the model "Fit for School" program in Philippines which is viable and cost-effective can be used for oral health promotion for children.
Parents were asked for their perspectives on how they learn about ECOH, oral hygiene practices and barriers, and recommendations for oral health promotion. The facilitator maintained an open environment that encouraged participants to share their perceptions and experiences in a non-judgmental way.
This is documented in annex 2.3 Why should schools be targeted and why is oral health promotion in schools effective?
Ms Hutt said the Community Dental Service is developing its public health role by carrying out screening, epidemiological surveys and providing oral health promotion services.
Diabetes and oral health promotion: A survey of disease prevention behaviors.
The April letter, addressed to Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott in his role as chairman of the domestic affairs Cabinet committee, went on: 'Experience of oral health promotion projects shows that it is much harder to establish regular tooth-brushing in deprived areas - because of the costs of toothpaste and, perhaps, because of the less ordered lifestyles lived by families.'
Use of fluoride toothpaste or gel has been shown to maximize the effects of a good regimen for oral health promotion and disease prevention.
A total of pounds 500,000 was allocated to health boards in Northern Ireland by Ms de Brun's department in 1999 to increase oral health promotion.
Issues of aging and oral health promotion. Gerodontics 1988; 4:194--206.

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