OM may cause infections of cavernous sinus, but the infections of cavernous sinuses, superior orbital fissure
or orbital apex are usually originated from para-nasal sinuses.
If the penetration is parallel to the orbital roof, it will violate the cranium through the superior orbital fissure
or optic canal, and usually does not result in bone fracture.
Finally, the nerves converge and acquire protective support from the thick fibrous meningeal layer (dura) as they pass together through the cavernous sinus (see Figure 2 and textbox), before entering the orbit via the superior orbital fissure
(SOF) to reach their destinations.
9) Geraghty and Dolan reported that the complete diagnostic criteria for MSH are (1) enlargement of the vertical orbit, (2) enlargement of the superior orbital fissure
, (3) elevation of the canine fossa, (4) enlargement of the pterygopalatine fissure, and (5) lateralization of the infraorbital neurovascular canal.
Superior orbital fissure
syndrome: current management concepts.
A cranial computed tomography (CT) scan was performed and a mass around the left orbital apex invading the superior orbital fissure
and the optic canal with intradural growth could be seen (Fig.
Radiologically the erosion of the petrous apex and erosion of foramen ovale, rotendum, superior orbital fissure
and displacement of the internal carotid artery are characteristic and have diagnostic value.
The infraorbital foramen was the landmark from which the distance between the following bony structures were examined; Nasion (NAS), Zygomatico maxillary suture (ZMS), Anterior nasal spine (ANS), and the distance between the inferior orbital rim (IOR) to optic canal (OC), infraorbital foramen (IOF), inferior & superior orbital fissure
(IF & SF) (Figure 1).
Because this, the dissection of the outer layer from the inner layer is not so easy around the superior orbital fissure
, oval and round foramen.
Orbital Apex Syndrome (OAS) is a rare condition characterised by damage to vessels and nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure
and optic foramen.
8 ml each and has as complications the diplopia caused by the dissemination of the anaesthetic through the inferior orbital fissure
(Jorgensen & Hayden, 1982; Tima, 1995).
The maxillary division of the Vth cranial nerve exits the superior maxillary foramen and enters the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure