Such small values of the dimensionless coupling coefficient ([[xi].sup.2.sub.NI] [approximately equal to] [10.sup.-6]) would place a large weight on the terms from the bulk ordering potential, strongly encouraging uniaxial order at the bulk-minimizing value of the scalar order parameter
It is further possible and common to define scalar order parameters
, which are connected to the second-order alignment tensor.
In Sections 2.1 and 2.2, we define the order parameters
and symmetry generators of the microscopic theory underlying HTSC and explain how the SO(5) symmetry arises from these structures.
The order parameter
[PSI] is very small in this range, and higher order terms of [PSI] can be neglected.
The most active factor--human resources--is involved in this order parameter
. This order parameter
is mainly influenced by two factors including organizational experience and knowledge capital.
Minimization of free energy (1.2) with respect to the order parameter
[PSI]([??]), and the potential vector [??], conduces to the fundamental equations of Ginzburg-Landau theory,
In photo-excitable NLC, another effective mechanism for order parameter
change is Trans-Cis isomerism of azo-NLC or azo-molecule doped-NLC [71,73,76].
In this case, three time instants, t = 1.0, t = 1.5, and t = 2.0, are considered, while the heat source velocity and the fractional order parameter
remain constant as v = 2.0 and [alpha] = 0.25, respectively.
Haken has proved that when [[lambda].sub.k] = c (c > 0), the largest initial order parameter
will win and the network will then converge.
The parameters measured were the hyperfine splitting constants (2[T.sup.[parallel]] and 2[T.sup.[perpendicular to]]), allowing for calculation of the order parameter
The term [X.sub.i] is the current value of the order parameter
, while [[alpha].sub.i] and [[beta].sub.i] are the maximum and minimum values of that order parameter
One may try to estimate a spatially averaged order parameter
and the corresponding effective critical temperature for a bundle consisting of a mixture of these two types of SWCNTs.