organic farming


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organic farming,

the practice of growing plants—especially for fruits and vegetables, but for ornamentals as well—without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, or of raising animals without the use of growth regulators, synthetic pesticides, feed that is produced using synthetic pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers, and the like. Organic farmers and gardeners use short-lived, biodegradable pest-killers, biological pest control, rotation of crops, and manure and compost to control pests and provide plant nutrients. In the United States, as elsewhere, awareness of the environmental damage and threats to health (see pollutionpollution,
contamination of the environment as a result of human activities. The term pollution refers primarily to the fouling of air, water, and land by wastes (see air pollution; water pollution; solid waste).
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; environmentalismenvironmentalism,
movement to protect the quality and continuity of life through conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution, and control of land use. The philosophical foundations for environmentalism in the United States were established by Thomas Jefferson,
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) caused by DDT, dieldrin, and other insecticidesinsecticides,
chemical, biological, or other agents used to destroy insect pests; the term commonly refers to chemical agents only. Chemical Insecticides

The modern history of chemical insecticides in the United States dates from 1867, when Paris green proved
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 and by the excessive use of chemical fertilizers fostered interest in organic gardening, particularly among home gardeners. Organic farming on a large scale is both more difficult and more costly than standard commercial farming, but an increasing market for organically grown, or "natural," foods supports a growing commercial organic farming sector in the United States. See also Integrated Pest ManagementIntegrated Pest Management
(IPM), planned program that coordinates economically and environmentally acceptable methods of pest control with the judicious and minimal use of toxic pesticides.
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; organic foodorganic food,
food raised without chemicals and processed without additives. Under standards adopted by the U.S. Agriculture Dept. (USDA) in 2000 and fully effective in 2002, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and antibiotics may not be used in raising organic foods, and the
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.

Bibliography

See J. I. Rodale et al., ed., The Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening (1959, repr. 1971); C. O. Foster, The Organic Gardener (1972).

References in periodicals archive ?
Apostolov, as cited by a correspondent of the BGNES news agency, argued that Bulgaria's national strategy on organic farming, which was being drafted, had to put greater emphasis on the export of end products rather than raw materials.
She said the Welsh Assembly Government's Organic Farming Scheme had helped to establish organic production in Wales.
We want to educate people about the benefits of organic products and organic farming.
This is one reason why a switch to organic farming in developing countries is typically a profitable option and can lead to 20-90 percent increases in production, according to Halweil.
To fully understand the roots of the organic farming movement and the organic marketing ruse, read the rest of this story in "The Truth About Organic Farming," which will be published by Henderson Communications in September.
The union said caveats in the research stated that such studies face methodological problems which limit their ability to draw quantitative conclusions; their knowledge of the impact of organic farming is limited; and more research needs to done to fill gaps in their knowledge.
The government has so far paid out pounds 48m to farmers to convert to organic farming.
Opening a short Westminster Hall debate, Mrs Ruddock paid tribute to the Government's support so far, including the allocation of more than pounds 11 million to farmers wishing to convert to organic farming.
LAHORE -- Organic farming is very useful and popular way of farming in the world to have pure and healthy crops.

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