organum


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organum

(ôr`gənəm), in music, compositional technique, developed in Europe during the 10th cent., in which each note of Gregorian chant melody was doubled by another note. In the earliest examples, called parallel organum, the doubling interval was constant, usually the lower fourth or fifth. In the 12th cent., composers began to apply a rapidly moving voice against the slow moving chant melody; the resulting compositions had two or more independent melodies and can be considered the beginning of polyphonic music.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Lack of engagement is certainly not a charge that could be levelled at the Ensemble Organum. Whatever one may think of the results, the approach to style and scoring followed by Marcel Peres are carefully worked-out and vigorously defended in his liner notes.
Roesner argues (quite reasonably) that organum in this passage does not necessarily mean organum purum alone, and that Anonymus IV does not say that Perotinus did not write for two voices or that Leoninus wrote only for two voices (or even that he wrote for two voices at all).
Also from Peres and the Ensemble Organum is Messe de Tournai (Harmonia Mundi France HMC 901353, rec 1990).
The essays in Part I, devoted to the early English sources, comprise Ritva Jacobsson's 'Unica in the Cotton Caligula Troper', Michel Huglo's 'Remarks on the Alleluia and Responsory Series in the Winchester Troper', Susan Rankin's 'Winchester Polyphony: the Early Theory and Practice of Organum' and Wulf Arlt's 'Stylistic Layers in Eleventh-Century Polyphony: How Can the Continental Sources Contribute to our Understanding of the Winchester Organa?': all relate directly to the music from Winchester Cathedral, though this may not be immediately evident from Jacobsson's title.
Passages of organum purum, marked by irregular successions of ligatures in the duplum over a spacious, nonmeasured tenor are also transcribed in stemless note-heads in the upper voice.
Olive oil, one pound; oil of organum, one drachm [1/8th ounce]; oil rosemary, 1-1/2 drachms.
While using a deep chest voice at least as strong as those of the Ensemble Organum's Machaut Mass, the delivery of Catalan singer Gisela Bellsola is, at least in the context of this piece, much more successful; and whatever the historical justification for alternating her impassioned rendition of the verses over a vocal drone with a 16th-century refrain in four voices, the effect is powerfully evocative.
In the Novum Organum (1620) Bacon in fact writes that "Human knowledge and human power meet in one; for where the cause is not known the effect cannot be produced" (i.3.; ed.
On the other hand, they are incapable of providing descriptions and codifications of the dupla of clausulas with complex rhythmic configurations and of irregularly notated passages of organum purum.
A later theoretical treatise, Ad organum faciendum, (5) was also represented by two pieces in the old anthologies of music.
Volume V contains a large collection of clausulae, passages which can replace corresponding portions of the appropriate organum duplum, by virtue of having set the same chant extract.