His topics are the construction of Baltica--proto-Europe, the Lower Paleozoic growth of proto-Europe, the Caledonian orogeny, the expansion of Europe in the Upper Paleozoic, the Hercynian orogenic cycle
, Europe in Mesozoic to mid-Cenozoic time, the Alpine orogeny, and Neogene to Quaternary Europe.
Nonetheless, much remains to be accomplished in this area, particularly in our understanding of the vertical distribution of deposits within continents, and their link to the orogenic cycle
. It is reasonable to expect that crustal architecture (in terms of thermal structure, permeability, redox barriers, etc.) acts as an important control on the sources of ore elements and their mechanisms of transfer.
This Andean cover was deformed and intruded by granitoids during the Andean orogenic cycle.
(2009): Anatomy and global context of the Andes: Main geologic features and the Andean orogenic cycle. The Geological Society of America Memoir 204, 31-65.
After the San Rafael orogeny a new subduction zone starts (the present one) and the Andean orogenic cycle begins.
In the early Permian, and as part of an extensional tectonic regime associated with the collapse of the Gondwanan orogen, the Andean Orogenic Cycle began, characterized in the CV by the post-tectonic intrusion of the Huinganco Granite associated with the volcano-sedimentary rocks of the La Premia Formation.
The Paleozoic rocks show contractional and extensional structures that can be attributed to deformations during the Chanic, Gondwanan, and Andean orogenic cycles (see Ramos, 1988 and works cited therein).
For this Special Volume, the Palaeozoic history was grouped into five different orogenic cycles
, which culminate in the orogenies: Ross (Cambrian-Ordovician), Ocloyic (Ordovician-Devonian), Famatinian (Ordovician-Silurian), Chanic (Devonian-Carboniferous) and Gondwanan or San Rafael (Carboniferous-Permian).
More recently, however, the gravitational spreading is often considered in explanations of extension of mountain regions during final stages of orogenic cycles
when the tectonic uplift exceeds topographic reduction due to denudation and erosion, which is the case of the Western Carpathians flysch.
During the Paleozoic, the tectonic history of this margin of Gondwana was mainly controlled by the accretion of exotic terranes and associated subduction processes grouped into the Famatinian and Gondwanan orogenic cycles
(Keidel, 1921; Acenolaza and Toselli, 1976), which culminate in two major orogenic events, the Chanic and Gondwanan orogenies (Ramos, 1988, 1999, 2004; Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989).