In this paper, we describe a comprehensive observational and modeling research project--Seeded and Natural Orographic Wintertime Clouds: The Idaho Experiment (SNOWIE)--that demonstrates a transformational approach to advance our understanding of orographic cloud
dynamical and microphysical processes and addresses long-standing uncertainties regarding the effectiveness of orographic cloud
To minimize the possibility of orographic cloud
and precipitation enhancement, the target area at YP was designed to be lower than the seeding point CPOS with an altitude difference of ~70 m.
Rauber and Grant  indicated that supercooled liquid water (SLW) layers are common in orographic cloud
systems with cloud tops at temperatures as low as -31[degrees]C.
was expected prior to the start of the global storm on 2007 Jun 23.
interception constitutes a major hydrological input within the study area (Clark et al.
Here, we perform sensitivity studies to investigate the impacts of dust and pollution aerosol on different kinds of orographic cloud
systems depending on different synoptic forcing and availability of moisture.
Signs of returning white cloud activity included: thin evening cloud over Hellas, Oct 5; thin morning cloud over Hellas, Oct 30; Arsia Mons orographic cloud
and thin evening cloud over Tharsis, Oct 18.
The short residence time of an air parcel within an orographic cloud
means that precipitation is much more dependent on the efficiency or speed of development of precipitation than in nonorographic clouds (Letcher and Cotton 2014).
Reynolds, "Literature review and scientific synthesis on the efficacy of winter orographic cloud
seeding, CIRES, Boulder, CO," A report to the U.S.
At ground level the orographic cloud
climbs the mountains but does not move to YJP.
The WWMPP was a multiyear project sponsored by the state of Wyoming that included a randomized seeding experiment to statistically evaluate the effectiveness of glaciogenic orographic cloud
seeding with silver iodide (AgI) to enhance the snowpack in the state.
The Arsia Mons orographic cloud
returned weakly to telescopic visibility on Jul 22 (Peach) at Ls= 254[degrees].