The orographic precipitation
, quantitative precipitation forecast, the diurnal cycle of precipitation, and the probability distribution function of precipitation are verified over the 2-yr period.
Aiming at exploring the interaction between orographic precipitation
and the large-scale monsoon circulation, Wang and Chang  used RegCM3 to simulate the summer monsoon onset in South and Southeast Asia during the year 2000.
For example, when the air masses coming from the Black Sea encounter Istranca Mountains, this encounter leads to orographic precipitation
in the area.
This configuration usually produces orographic precipitation
at the windward base of mountain ranges, in this case mainly affecting the Cantabrian region.
The most humid areas are found between 1950 and 2450 m asl within the Tropical Pluviseasonal bioclimate; this altitudinal range is where the effect of orographic precipitation
is intensified, a situation that is borne out by the high values of the ombrothermic indices (Table 1) and by the type of vegetation, characterised by large expanses of rainforest and cloud mountain grassland.
Through the process known as orographic precipitation
, when moist air rises up a mountain and cools to the point of condensation which leads to rain or snow, could explain the creation of valley networks which would appear on one side of a Martian mountain but not on the other side.
The climatology of small scale orographic precipitation
over the Olympic mountains: Patterns and processes, Quartely Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 134(633): 817-839.
occurs when warm, moist air is lifted over mountains.
Precipitation caused by the uplift over topographic surfaces is called orographic precipitation
. Once the air mass has moved over the mountains, it will be very dry, causing arid conditions to prevail on the downwind side.
To simulate abrupt climatic shifts with elevation (e.g., shallow orographic precipitation
and temperature inversions).
Beyond these improvements, there are additional advances to be gained from implementing convection-permitting resolution, including more faithfully resolved terrain features and orographic precipitation
, more realistic propagation of extratropical mesoscale convective systems, and improved representation of gravity wave drag produced by terrain (Davis et al.
Norte, "Strong cross-barrier flow under stable conditions producing intense winter orographic precipitation
: a case study over the subtropical central Andes," Weather and Forecasting, vol.