# orthogonal

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## orthogonal

[ȯr′thäg·ən·əl]
(computer science)
An area of a computer display in which units of distance are the same horizontally and vertically so that there is no distortion.
A viewing area in which positions are determined by using a cartesian coordinate system with horizontal and vertical axes.
(mathematics)
Perpendicular, or some concept analogous to it.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## orthogonal

(geometry)
At 90 degrees (right angles).

N mutually orthogonal vectors span an N-dimensional vector space, meaning that, any vector in the space can be expressed as a linear combination of the vectors. This is true of any set of N linearly independent vectors.

The term is used loosely to mean mutually independent or well separated. It is used to describe sets of primitives or capabilities that, like linearly independent vectors in geometry, span the entire "capability space" and are in some sense non-overlapping or mutually independent. For example, in logic, the set of operators "not" and "or" is described as orthogonal, but the set "nand", "or", and "not" is not (because any one of these can be expressed in terms of the others).

Also used loosely to mean "irrelevant to", e.g. "This may be orthogonal to the discussion, but ...", similar to "going off at a tangent".

## orthogonal

At right angles. The term is used to describe electronic signals that appear at 90 degree angles to each other. Orthogonal is also widely used to describe conditions that are contradictory, or opposite, rather than in parallel or in sync with each other. See orthogonal programming.
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References in periodicals archive ?
It is obvious that the use of orthogonal filters can improve performances of induction motor by reducing voltage sag effect.
Similarly, orthogonal weave has got higher strength in weft direction comparing to warp direction due to low waviness present in weft yarn.
We therefore suggest an approach that investigate rather than letting the interference to come from neighboring cells that have the same orthogonal pilots.
As shown before, it corresponds to the MISP (or, orthogonal set) in G.
There are 10 diagonals in any 5x5 and version (2) of the games will allow two more mutual orthogonals to reach the maximum four.
In the rock mass ratio of similar materials, using the method of orthogonal design of proportioning test design can greatly reduce the number of tests, combined with the existing research level of similar materials for soft rock and formation characteristics, applying the similarity principle and selection principle, model selection of various materials, and susceptibility testing of different materials by orthogonal design principle, taking a lot of proportioning test study on the system, different ratio of similar materials, and developing a new type of similar material.
Let P [subset.bar] [T.sub.p]M be an n-dimensional plane orthogonal to U, V and let {[e.sub.1], [e.sub.2],..., [e.sub.n]} be orthonormal basis of it.
In this paper, in order to employ and extend the classic GS minimum energy approach, we seek an appropriate orthogonal condition of the STLCS based on the previous work [24, 25], which can be viewed as existence condition of the dual window.
[U.sup.*]V = [0.sub.M] implies that each of M column vectors of U is orthogonal to each of M column vectors of V; that is, U and V are orthogonal and complement each other.

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