# orthogonal

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## orthogonal

[ȯr′thäg·ən·əl]
(computer science)
An area of a computer display in which units of distance are the same horizontally and vertically so that there is no distortion.
A viewing area in which positions are determined by using a cartesian coordinate system with horizontal and vertical axes.
(mathematics)
Perpendicular, or some concept analogous to it.

## orthogonal

(geometry)
At 90 degrees (right angles).

N mutually orthogonal vectors span an N-dimensional vector space, meaning that, any vector in the space can be expressed as a linear combination of the vectors. This is true of any set of N linearly independent vectors.

The term is used loosely to mean mutually independent or well separated. It is used to describe sets of primitives or capabilities that, like linearly independent vectors in geometry, span the entire "capability space" and are in some sense non-overlapping or mutually independent. For example, in logic, the set of operators "not" and "or" is described as orthogonal, but the set "nand", "or", and "not" is not (because any one of these can be expressed in terms of the others).

Also used loosely to mean "irrelevant to", e.g. "This may be orthogonal to the discussion, but ...", similar to "going off at a tangent".

## orthogonal

At right angles. The term is used to describe electronic signals that appear at 90 degree angles to each other. It is also widely used to describe conditions that are contradictory, or opposite, rather than in parallel or in sync with each other.
References in periodicals archive ?
r~0] log(r) + C so again the curve [gamma] touches orthogonally the light cone as r [right arrow] 0 (in the case [lambda]' = 0 and n = 2, we recover the example of the torus found in Section 3.
We constructed our experimental pairs by orthogonally manipulating two variables: Affective congruence and semantic relatedness.
However, most of the proposed dual-band dual-sense circularly polarized slot antennas in present literatures have relatively complex structures with several optimized parameters in order to achieve orthogonally circular polarization at two different working frequencies.
In other words, it is to combine two bidirectional linearly polarized antennas orthogonally at a distance of [[lambda].
Does there exists an orthogonally quadratic mapping Q : [Laplace] [right arrow] [X.
A six-component electromagnetic vector sensor (EMVS) consists of three spatially co-located identical but orthogonally oriented, electrically short dipoles and magnetically small loops separately measuring all three electric-field components and three magnetic-field components of incident signals.
A wideband microstrip patch antenna loaded with a planar CRLH unit cell is presented in [13], the wideband composed of two orthogonally mode working bands, and the frequency band not tunable.
This drill bit created a lateral hole that connected orthogonally with the medially drilled hole in order to create two separate transosseous tunnels.
They are placed orthogonally to the axis of the spindle on aerostatic supports.
Ultraviolet (UV) photolithography was utilized to create orthogonally arrayed microchannels on the surface of the silicon wafers, which served as the back half mold surface.
2b) and consequently intensify the magnetic flux density in the water region, where they are orientated orthogonally to the water flow (in the Y-direction, Fig.
Therefore, we created four subtypes of deception by orthogonally crossing the two dimensions from the Ganis et al.

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