The users need the conversion between the ellipsoidal height and orthometric height
in many GPS applications (Seeber, 2003; Fotopoulos, 2003; Erol et al.
The actual orthometric height
difference [DELTA]H of point B is the length of the plumb line (passing through the point B) in between the reference surface [W.
The topographic relief has a mean orthometric height
of about 1000 m.
Data bases with land forms information, topographical density, gravimetric quantities, geoid form and shape, contribute useful to compute the physical parameters on which the orthometric height
Based on a series of GPS measurements made in 2002 on top of peak Bolivar, the highest Venezuelan mountain, and on seven other nearby sites along the Venezuelan Andes, including three other of the highest peaks of the country; and using a recently derived local geoid for Venezuela, the orthometric height
of Peak Bolivar, 4978.
In many positioning, mapping, and exploration applications, conventional spirit levelling is being replaced by orthometric height
determination using GPS and the geoid.
iota]], is the normal gravity and H is the orthometric height
where point position is represented by geographical latitude and longitude (B , L), h is ellipsoidal height, H is orthometric height
Comparing equations (1) and (3), the difference between the normal and orthometric height
The geocentric radius of the earth surface is approximately equal to the geocentric radius of the geoid surface plus the orthometric height
A yet further opportunity for injecting error into the whole process can arise from the perceived need to operate in orthometric height
It is a reference surface in the orthometric height