Orthoptera

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Related to orthopteran: Siphonaptera, Dermaptera, Mantodea

Orthoptera

[ȯr′thäp·tə·rə]
(invertebrate zoology)
A heterogeneous order of generalized insects with gradual metamorphosis, chewing mouthparts, and four wings.

Orthoptera

 

(also Saltatoria), an order of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. The order includes grasshoppers, crickets, and cockroaches. The body is elongate and laterally compressed. The mouthparts are formed for chewing. The majority of orthopterons have two pairs of wings. The front wings are narrow and thick and have a distinct venation; the hind wings are broad, membranous, and folded in plaits like a fan. In some species the wings are shortened or absent. The posterior legs are usually saltatorial. The abdomen consists of ten segments and is equipped with nonsegmented appendages, or cerci. The females of many species have an ovipositor.

The Orthoptera are divided into two suborders: Dolichocera (or Ensifera), which includes the superfamilies Tettigonioidea and Gryllacridoidea, and Brachycera (or Caelifera), which includes the superfamilies Acridoidea and Tridactyloidea. The Dolichocera have long antennae, exceeding half the body length, and long ovipositors. The Brachycera have short antennae and ovipositors. Orthopterons emit and receive sounds by means of special sonic and auditory apparatus.

There are about 20,000 widely distributed species. Species composition is especially diverse in the tropics. The USSR has more than 700 species; they are most varied in the south (Crimea, Caucasus, Middle Asia, southern Primor’e Krai). Most orthopterons (Acridoidea and some Tettigonioidea) are herbivorous; some are predators or omnivores. The eggs are deposited singly or in groups in the soil or, less frequently, on the stems or leaves of plants. Orthopterons encountered in the USSR usually yield one generation a year. Many winter in the egg phase, with the larvae hatching in the spring. Development ends in one or two months, after four to eight molts. Wing formation and oviposition occur in the summer. Many orthopterons live in the grass or in shrubs and trees; some live in the soil, often in burrows, and on the soil surface (Gryllacridoidea and Tridactyloidea).

Fossil orthopterons are known from the Carboniferous. Orthopterons are characteristic insects of open landscapes. Some are dangerous pests of agricultural crops. In peak years of reproduction they severely damage plantings, hay mowings, and pastures; they sometimes damage trees and shrubs. The Acridoidea are the most dangerous. In the south, Tettigonioidea and Gryllacridoidea often cause great harm. The most effective method of controlling destructive orthopterons is chemical; agrotechnical and economic-organizational methods are also used (for example, development of virgin lands or wastelands deprives orthopterons of convenient sites for reproduction).

REFERENCES

Opredelitel’ nasekomykh Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR, vol. 1. Edited by G. Ia. Bei-Bienko. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964.
Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 3. Moscow, 1969.

F. N. PRAVDIN

References in periodicals archive ?
It is clear therefore that the method, frequency and date of mowing are all basic factors influencing the presence and the current population size of orthopteran species, as well as the development of the structure of orthopteran assemblages, both in the short and the long-term (Buri et al.
Orthopteran diversity of Pin Valley National Park, Lahaul and Spiti, India.
Although the 50-250 km hybrid zone is fairly narrow relative to the distribution of these katydids, which stretches some 2000 km from Florida to Texas, it is quite broad relative to reasonable estimates of dispersal (precise estimates of dispersal rates are not available, but the best available data for other orthopterans suggest values on the order of 100 m/generation or less; Aikman and Hewitt 1972; Barton and Hewitt 1982; Barendse 1990; Kindvall and Ahlen 1992; Mason et al.
This very characteristic orthopteran species is widespread in many parts of the world.
This was the first report of the ability to tolerate glucosides expressed by an Orthopteran.
For instance, an adult Argiope aurantia needs to spend an average of 20 to 30 sec of wrapping time to subdue an orthopteran (Harwood, 1973).
Mating behavior of the primitive Orthopteran genus Cyphoderris (Haglidae).
Along with fragmentary understanding of the orthopteran diversity in Southeast Asia (Tan et al.
invicta, but instead develop in an orthopteran host (Cook 1996) in a heteronomous relationship typical of the Myrmecolacidae.
The purposes of this note are: (1) to document the pattern of old-field succession for phytophagous orthopteran species using data collected from fields of different ages, as well as data collected from comparisons of the same field across time; and (2) to relate the pattern of orthopteran succession to the interactions between orthopteran mandibular morphologies and the shift in plant community composition from primarily forbs to mixtures of grass and forb species.
These previous three studies of orthopteran song preferences come closest to satisfying Searcy and Andersson's (1986) criteria.
The remains of eleven genera of small mammals, one unidentified passerine bird, and fragments of orthopteran and coleopteran insects were identified from the cast material (Table 1).