osmium

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osmium

(ŏz`mēəm), metallic chemical element; symbol Os; at. no. 76; at. wt. 190.23; m.p. 3,045±30°C;; b.p. 5,027±100°C;; sp. gr. 22.57 at 20°C;; valence usually +0 to +8. Osmium is a very hard, brittle, lustrous bluish-white metal with a close-packed hexagonal crystalline structure. It immediately precedes iridium in Group 8 of the periodic tableperiodic table,
chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. In the periodic table the elements are arranged in columns and rows according to increasing atomic number (see the table entitled
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. The measured densities of osmium and iridium indicate that osmium is slightly more dense than iridium, and osmium is generally credited as the heaviest element. Osmium does not oxidize readily in air except when heated or in powdered form; it then forms the unpleasant smelling, highly toxic tetroxide, OsO4. The tetroxide is used in microscopy as a stain, in fingerprint detection, and as a catalyst. Osmium is not affected by common acids but is oxidized to the tetroxide by hot nitric acid, hot sulfuric acid, or aqua regia. Osmium reacts with fluorine or chlorine gas at high temperatures to give the tetrafluoride or tetrachloride. In addition to the valences noted above, osmium assumes other valences between 0 and +8 in various compounds. Osmium is found in platinum ores and in the mineral osmiridium. It is recovered commercially as a byproduct of the refining of nickel ores mined near Sudbury, Ont., Canada. The metal is used largely for the production of hard alloys for use in fountain pen points, phonograph needles, and instrument bearings. Osmium was discovered by Smithson Tennant in 1804 in a residue left after dissolving crude platinum in aqua regia.

Osmium

 

Os, a chemical element in group VIII of the Mendeleev periodic system. Atomic number, 76; atomic weight, 190.2. One of the platinum metals.

osmium

[′äz·mē·əm]
(chemistry)
A chemical element, symbol Os, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2.
(metallurgy)
A hard white metal of rare natural occurrence.

osmium

a very hard brittle bluish-white metal occurring with platinum and alloyed with iridium in osmiridium: used to produce platinum alloys, mainly for pen tips and instrument pivots, as a catalyst, and in electric-light filaments. Symbol: Os; atomic no.: 76; atomic wt.: 190.2; valency: 0 to 8; relative density: 22.57; melting pt.: 3033?30?C; boiling pt.: 5012?100?C
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